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Period 4: 1800-1848 (Chapters 7-11)
Terms in this set (38)
when was the age of Jefferson?
1800-1816; during the presidency of Thomas Jefferson
what were Jefferson's political views when he went into office? Did he stay true to them during his presidency?
He was a democratic-republican when he went into office and did not stay true to the dem-rep views, he included many federalist ideals into his policies (ie. creation of a national bank)
what political party supported the Louisiana Purchase? why? did this go against Jefferson's original views or not?
Federalists; they had a loose interpretation of the constitution and no where in the constitution id it say that the US could not purchase lands from foreign nations
It also went against Jefferson's original views because it aided in the creation of an urban and industrial society (Hamiltonian view) rather than an agrarian society
Summarize Lewis and Clark's expedition.
government funded scientific exploration that would provide info about the geography if the West and better the relationships with Native Americans
what was the outcome of Marbury v. Madison?
Established judicial review
the Supreme Court could overrule actions of the other two branches
threatened to break up the Union
Attacked American ships off the coast of North Africa
Jefferson refused to pay in order to be left alone and instead had Navy accompany merchant ships
What was the Embargo Act? was it successful? why was it set in place?
1807; a law that prohibited American merchants from trading with other countries
It backfired and brought greater economic hardships on the US
BRI and FRA were impressing US merchant ships
Madison's political views and election
worked with Jefferson as a Democratic-Republican and was elected after him in 1808
1809; repealed the embargo act, allowed Americans to trade with all nations except for BRI and FRA
what was the purpose of Macon's Bill?
restored US trade with BRI and FRA
who was the War of 1812 between? what was the main cause of the war?
Between BRI and the US
BRI continued to impress US ships and sailors
what are the characteristics of war hawks?
Democratic-republicans who wanted to go to war with BRI
what did the treaty of Ghent do? (1815)
Ended the War of 1812
What was the Hartford Convention? what were its results?
New England states were threatening to secede from the union
It weakened the Federalist party, claiming them as unpatriotic
Madison's War Legacy
1. US gained respect from other nations
2. End of the federalist party
3. Natives Americans were forced to move West
4. War heroes became political leaders
When was the Era of Good Feelings?
1816-1819; the Monroe years
What was the Tariff of 1816?
protective tariff established by Congress to encourage Americans to buy goods made in the US
Describe the American System
1. establish a protective tariff= protects a nation's businesses from foreign competition
2. establish a national bank= promoted single currency, making trade easier
3. improve the country's transportation system= infrastructure
the panic of 1819
This was the first widespread economic crisis in the United States which brought deflation, depression, bank failures, and unemployment. This set back nationalism to more sectionalism and hurt the poorer class, which gave way to Jacksonian Democracy.
the Missouri Compromise
1820; agreement between pro-slavery and anti-slavery states concerning the extension of slavery into new territories
established on the southern border of Missouri
What was the purpose of the Monroe Doctrine?
to discourage European nations from establishing colonies in Latin America (US threatened)
Sectionalism vs. Nationalism
Sectionalism is loyalty to ones region or section of the country Nationalism is loyalty and pride associated with the nation as a whole
4 million people crossed the Atlantic to the US
many immigrants remained where they landed or traveled to farms and cities
was caused by 3 factors:
1. inexpensive and rapid transportation across the ocean
2. famines and revolutions drove people away from Europe
3. growing reputation of opportunities in the US
when was the 'Age of the Common Man' or the 'Era of the Jacksonian Democracy'
results of the Age of the Common Man
1. Universal male suffrage
2. Party Nominating Conventions
3. Two party system
4. Rise of third parties
5. Spoils system
Tariff of Abominations
1828; significantly raised tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods, favored by the North and hated by the South
the revolution of 1828
shift of political power to "the common man" (1828), when the government changed hands from Adams to Jackson
Indian Removal Act
1830; forced Native American nations to move west of the Mississippi River
2 cases that the Cherokee challenged Georgia
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
-ruled Cherokee Nation as not a foreign nation
Worcester v. Georgia (1832)
Trail of Tears
1838; Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands, traveled more than 800 miles -to the Indian Territory. More than 4,000 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
1828; an attempt by the state of South Carolina to nullify a federal law -the tariff of 1828
what was the new two party system (during the Jacksonian Era)?
Democratic and Whig
the panic of 1837
A financial crisis in the US that led to an economic depression
when was the Second Great Awakening
ways that society was reformed
1. public asylums
2. schools for vision/hearing impaired
4. public education
5. women's roles
6. anti-slavery movements
Cult of Domesticity/Republican Motherhood
This idea refers to the idealization of women in their roles as wives and mothers.
The concept of "republican mother" suggested that women would be responsible for raising their children to be virtuous citizens of the new American republic.
Seneca Falls Convention
1848; the first national women's rights convention at which the Declaration of Sentiments was written
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