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GY TEST 2
Terms in this set (13)
How does water move through the Snake River Plain of southern Idaho add how does the water manifest on the landscape?
•Water from rivers soak into the ground, causing them to 'be lost'
•A large amount of water flows underground (Snake River Aquifer)
•Huge springs result where groundwater flows onto the surface
Know where fresh water is distributed on Earth and the relative size of each store (water budget).
•96.5% of water on Earth is saline (salty) water in the ocean
•The other 3.5% is freshwater
-Most freshwater is frozen in ice caps and glaciers (69%)
-Lakes, swamps, streams (1%)
Know the major processes and drivers of the hydrologic cycle.
-driven by solar energy
Evaporation: Water heated by sun rise into atmosphere as water vapor
Condensation: Water vapor cools and condenses into liquids and solids in clouds
Precipitation: Clouds cool and release precipitation
Infiltration: Precipitation seeps into the ground
Groundwater flow: Groundwater flows beneath surface
Surface runoff: water flows across surface
Transpiration: precipitation and soil water taken up by plants
What is residence time and how is residence time influenced by changes in the size of a store and the rate of flux?
•= Average amount of time that water remains in a store
•Residence time = volume of store / flux V/F
•Residence time increases as the size of the store increases and the flux decreases
What is deficit and what does it indicate?
•Once at the wilting point, then any further unmet water demand is called deficit (i.e. difference between PE and actual evapotranspiration)
•Deficit is a measure of drought severity
What are the largest consumers of freshwater in the United States?
irrigation and thermoelectric power (and public and domestic use)
Know the controls on groundwater flow discussed in class.
•Can slope in opposite directions beneath a hill
•Slope of the water table; steeper slope = faster flow
•Rock permeability and amount of fracturing
What are the characteristics of a good aquifer?
= Saturated body of permeable material through which groundwater can flow and that yields significant volumes of water to wells and springs
•Properties of good aquifers
-High Porosity = open space in rock
-High Permeability = ability to transmit fluid through porous rock
Know the types of aquifers described in class and how they are differentially positioned relative to zones of low permeability.
•Unconfined: open to Earth's surface and infiltration
•Perched: Underlain by a low permeability zone and sit above the main water table
•Confined: Overlain by a low permeability zone, separated from Earth's surface
•Artesian: Confined aquifers under enough pressure that water rises within well
Understand how lakes gain or lose water according to their position relative to the water table.
•River lower than water table = gain water from inflow of groundwater
•River higher than water table = lose water to groundwater
•Mound of groundwater can form below river due to outflow of river water into groundwater
What are the consequences of overpumping groundwater?
•Cone of depression
•Land subsidence and compaction
•Groundwater flow changes direction
•Bring contamination into previously uncontaminated wells
•Along the coast, pull saltwater into wells that were previously fresh
How does contamination move through groundwater?
•moves with groundwater down the slope of the water table
•Can be naturally filtered out with enough time: flows slowly and in contact with material like sand
•Not filtered if flows rapidly through a rock, such as a limestone with open cavities
When and how do deltas form?
•Deltas form when stream enters lake or sea
•Stream velocity slows
•Sediment load is deposited (i.e. drops from transport at mouth of stream)
•Deposited sediment blocks the channel
•Stream cuts a new path (distributaries)
Recommended textbook explanations
Pearson Earth Science
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
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