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Test 1

Developmental School of Thought

all communication is interpersonal, on a continuum: not close to very close

Dyadic School of Thought

interpersonal relationship is between two close individuals, interpersonal communication is everything else

Interpersonal Communication

when two people talk, including nonverbal communication

Needed for Interpersonal Communication




effective interpersonal communication

communication competence (social rules/awareness)
field of expression

symmetrical relationship

two people who are very much alike

complementary relationship

two people who are different, but alike enough to have similar interests


messages about messages
begin with qualifiers


relatively specialized lifestyle of a group of people, values, beliefs, artifacts, ways of behaving, ways of communicating


culture learned from birth


learned culture

high-context culture

not dependent on explicit verbal language, information in communication is in context, information from previous communication/assumptions

low-context culture

explicit verbal language

culture shock

honeymoon, crisis, recovery, adjustment

unethical communication

impedment of someone's freedom of choice, must have decision making ability

types of ethical communication

lying, fear and emotional appeals, censor messages, gossiping

effective communication

meta-communication (communication about communication)
cultural sensitivity

rhetorical sensitivity

monitoring and language, right vs. wrong thing to say


monitor your behavior


stimulation, organization, interpretation/evaluation, memory, recall


taking in of stimulus (auditory and visual)
familiar, intense, new


proximity, similarity, closure (bits of information that are missing)
scripts: societal norms
schemata: your experience

attribution theory

our perceptions explain how others may behave


wrongly percieve other's behavior based on our perception

self serving bias

credit taken for the good and blame given for the bad

halo effect

someone can do no wrong

Pygmalion effect

when treated a certain way you will believe you're that way and change your behavior


a whole group is like one person

perceptual accentuation

you only see what you want to see

accurate perception

reduce uncertainty, check perception, analyze perceptions

self concept

image of who you are due to other's perception and social comparisons

self awareness

how much you know about yourself

self realization

self discovery moment

self esteem

how you feel about yourself

self disclosure

communicating information about yourself to others

self effacing humor

making fun of yourself

factors that influence self disclosure

disclosure of others, audience size, topic, gender, relationship

social penetration theory

relationships are like onions, peeling away the onion layers is getting to know you

rewards of self disclosure

knowledge of self ability to cope communication effectiveness

guidelines for self disclosure

motivated, appropriate, clear, reciprical


psychological process, with hearing involved

listening process

receiving, understanding, remembering, evaluating, responding


back-channeling cue and feedback

back-channeling cue

responding while the other is talking to you ex. nodding

feedback (responding)

responding after listening

qualities of effective feedback

immediacy, honest, appropriateness, clarity

active listening

informative, evaluative, theraputic

informative listening

listening to gain information, asking questions, interrupting speaker. ex. class

evaluative listening

listening in order to give opinion
evaluating how new logic fits together

therapeutic listening

empathetic, listening to how you are feeling, hearing

non-listening behaviors

pseudo listening
stage hogging
selective listening
defense listening
insensitive listening

pseudo listening

immitation of actual listening with feedback with just hearing

stage hogging

listening until it is your turn to speak, no listening usually takes place

selective listening

only listening to parts that interest you

defensive listening

taking innocent comments as personal attacks


using everything one says against them

insensitive listening

listen to context but not the meaning

listen more effectively

paraphrase, express understanding if feelings are involved, ask questions

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