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Terms in this set (70)
what is creationist view?
god created man pretty much in his present form at one time within the last 10,000
what is the theistic evolution intelligent design?
man developed over millions of years from less advances forms of life, but god guided this process, including man
what is naturalistic evolution?
man has developed over millions of years from less advances forms of life. no god
What is evolution?
change and descent with modification through time due to changes in allele frequencies
what were Darwin's three radical ideas?
1. species are independent
2. life on earth is young
3. species are immutable
What was Lamarck's theory?
inheritance of acquired characteristics
How did Darwin describe evolution?
descent with modification
change over time produced modern, modified species
what is unity of life?
shared characteristics due to a common ancestor
what is diversity of life
descendants live in different habitats
what is homology
similarities resulting from common ancestry
same structure different function
What is an analogous structure?
same function, different structure
similar structures because of adaption in environment
what is a species
groups of individuals that can exchange genetic material through interbreeding
what are genes
segments of DNA that code for a function, resulting in a phenotype
What is an allele?
an alternative version of a gene, 2 alleles for one gene
What is a gene pool?
all the alleles in a population
What is a population?
interbreeding groups of organisms of the same species living in the same geographical area
what is genetic variation?
genetic differences that exist among individuals in a population at a particular point in time
What is a genotype?
the genetic makeup of a cell or organism
What is a phenotype?
what is a somatic mutation
mutation in a body cell
what us a germ-line mutation
in the reproductive cells that are passed to next generation
what are the 4 processes that drive evolution
natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, mutation
What is natural selection?
survival of the fittest
increases the frequency of alleles that contribute to reproductive success in an environment
What is genetic drift?
random change in allele frequency
what is gene flow?
movement of alleles from one population to another
What is a mutation?
change in DNA sequence
introducing new alleles
what are the conditions of hardy-weinberg equilibrium?
no natural selection
large pop size
no gene flow
what does "p + q = 1" represent?
allele frequency of dominant p and recessive q
what does "p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1" represent?
genotype frequency of homozygous dominant
heterozygous dominant and
what are the patterns of natural selection
What is fitness?
the number of viable offspring that an individual produces
what is the difference between intrasexual and intersexual selection
intra is between one sex
inter is between male and female
what is non random mating?
when individuals select mates based on proximity or phenotype
what is the truth about mutations?
they are slow until natural selections grabs a hold of them
What is the founder effect?
new population likely to have different allele frequencies than the source population
What is genetic bottleneck?
high mortality strikes individuals at random
what is the biological species concept?
species are groups of actually of potentially interbreeding populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups
what is morphospecies concept?
members of the same species usually look alike
what is ecological species concept?
characterizing species by their ecological niche
what is the phylogenetic species concept
members of a species all share common ancestry
What are pre-zygotic barriers?
behavioral, mechanical, temporal, gametic, ecological
what are the post-zygotic barriers?
what is ecological isolation?
Isolating barriers that are by-products of the ecology of different species
What is behavioral isolation?
not being able to identify a mate
what is mechanical isolation?
male orchids attract Male bees
what is hybrid inviability
fertilized egg cannot progress past an early embryo
what is hybrid sterility?
interspecies hybrid viable but sterile
What is hybrid breakdown?
hybrids viable and fertile but subsequent generations have genetic abnormalities
What is allopatric speciation?
geographic isolation which results in speciation
What is dispersal?
individuals move to a new habitat
What is vicariance?
the geographical separation of a population, typically by a physical barrier such as a mountain range or river, resulting in a pair of closely related species.
what is peripatetic speciation?
new population is small
what is co-speciation?
two groups of organisms speciate in response to each other and at the same time
What is sympatric speciation?
a species evolves into a new species without a physical barrier
What is a taxon?
specific category of level in the taxonomic hierarchy
What is the order of classification?
Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
What is a phylogenetic tree?
branching diagram representing a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships
What are sister taxa?
groups that share an immediate common ancestor
What is a basal taxon?
earliest lineage to diverge from the remainder of the group
what is a clade
an ancestral species and all descendants
What is a shared derived character or synamorphie?
characters found only within a clade
What is a shared ancestral character?
a character that originated in an ancestor of the taxon
what is a paraphyletic group
consists of a single common ancestor and some of the descendants
What is a paraphyletic group?
consists more than one common ancestor
what were the two bottleneck occurrence that humans created?
leaving Africa 50,000 - 60,000
crossing the bearing strait - 16,000
what are cells?
all organisms are made up of membrane-bound cells
what is replication?
all organisms are capable of reproduction
What are firmicutes?
microbe high in fats
what are bacteriodetes?
microbe high in plants
the good stuff
know when animals adapted their traits
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