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Indonesia's diverse musical genres

were significant to the "Unity in diversity" movement after independence from the Dutch in 1945

Gamelan Kebyar

A style of gamelan music that is virtuosic and often combines elements from other musical genres.

In Hindu-Balinese cosmology Gamelan music

communicates with and between the upper, middle, and lower worlds.

Gamelan Beleganjur music was originally created

evil spirits of the Lower World

Beleganjur music intimidates and drives away evil spirits (bhutas and leyaks)who are said to travel

to the earthly Middle World in order to cause harm to people and departing souls (atma) of the dead.

Balinese cremation ceremonies

commonly utilize Beleganjur music

7. The Beleganjur cremation procession begins at

home of the deceased and ends at the Temple of the Dead, where the cremation occurs.

The human remains are

carried in a tall tower called a wadah

In Balinese cosmology crossroads are

dangerous places where evil spirits hang out. The beleganjur music becomes less interlocking or syncopated at the crossroads.

Beleganjur music was used for

actual battles in Bali before Dutch rule. Now it is used in martial arts shadow puppet plays known as wayang kulit as well as musical battles between beleganjur groups known as lomba beleganjur.

In Indian classical music Gharana are

"musical families."

Raga are

elaborate melodic systems utilized throughout Indian classical music

Tala are

systems of rhythm and meter in Indian classical music

In India approximately

200 Languages are spoken, 1,600 Dialects, and Hindi and English are recognized as the national languages.

Hindustani music follows

the ancient Hindu scriptures called Vedas

Stories about Radha who loved and sought after the god Krishna make up

the lyrical content of almost all Hindustani classical music.

Film Git

India's film songs


syllables which indicate the pitches of a raga

Qawwali is

a Sufi musical tradition featuring songs lyrics about love, longing, or devotion to the divine (Allah).


Sufi term meaning the state of oneness or ecstasy with the divine which can be reached through music.

Kyal is

Hindustani vocal music of North India that has a long and well recorded history due to the patronage of noble classes

Khyal performances begin with

alap, in "free rhythm" which lasts about one third of a performance


when the tala ("rhythmic cycle") enters. This section follows the alap

In the 1960s Vishwa Mohan Bhatt, a classically trained Indian musician, modified a

guitar to play raga like a sitar

Vishwa Mohan Bhatt Wrote

"India" in 1961 which featured improvised passages over a drone

John Coltrane played in

Miles Davis's band and was kicked out because of drug usage. While detoxing he had a spiritual awakening.

In 1965 George Harrison

of the Beatles played a sitar solo in the song "Norwegian wood."

"Within You, Without You" on Sergeant Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band featured

tabla, sitar, and raga-like features.

29. John McLaughlin left Miles Davis's band to

his own group which he named the Mahavishnu Orchestra which featured Indian, Jazz, and rock influences.

In 1975 McLaughlin formed another group called

Shakti in which all other members were Indian classical musicians by training.

At the time of filming The Gods Must be Crazy, white South Africans had moved the Kung San off their land, placed them in concentration camps, and forced them to

fight for white South Africans against other Namibians.

The director of the film, Jamie Uys, paid the Kung San to

enact false European stereotypes of Africans on screen in order to provide comical entertainment for popular audiences in Europe and the United States

Even though the Kung San were paid very little, The Gods Must be Crazy won

the César film award in France and the Grand Prix at the International Film Festival.

Early Christian missionaries from Europe in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries "made examples" of

Africans playing music which they referred to as "Asses Music" and "Noise."

The Ewe are

a people located on the southeast corner of Ghana

Agbekor is an

Ewe war dance, used when entering into battle with the Fon, a neighboring ethnic group

Polymeter is

the use of two metric frameworks simultaneously, or in regular alternation

Dagomba is

a kingdom of people living in Northern Ghana

It is in musical form that Dagomba history has

been preserved over the centuries


accompaniment drums that Dagomba drummers historically view as having non-Dagomba origins.

Dagomba lungas are referred to by many Westerners as

"talking drums," a term attributed to drums across much of West Africa and the rest of the continent.

"Praise name drumming" is

the art of reconstructing history through the honorific "talk" of the lungas

Metaphor and coded language are

common lyrical devices used in Dagomba and Ewe society.

Mbira is

a plucked idiophone ("thumb piano") played by the Shona people of Zimbabwe.

The Mbira is considered

a "telephone" to the ancestors

A Jeli is

a praise singer and history keeper of the Mande culture

The Kouyate family of jelilu traces its lineage back to the first Mande chief, King Sunjata and therefore

hold the highest rank among jeli families


A xylophone type idiophone that is constructed of between 17 and 21 hard wooden slats of different lengths suspended over a wooden frame

The Kora is an

instrument played by the hereditary class of musicians of Mande culture known as jelilu or jelis.

Koni or Ngoni is

a plucked chordophone like a banjo

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