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Anatomy and Physiology II Exam 2
Terms in this set (42)
What are pores in the cell membrane that allow signaling chemicals to move from cell to cell?
What are released from neurons to travel across gap to 2nd cell?
What is secreted into tissue fluids to affect nearby cells?
Paracrine (local) hormones
What are chemical messengers that travel in the bloodstream?
What type of cells have receptors for hormones?
What regulates primitive functions from water balance to sex drive?
The hypothalamus; Many functions are carried out by the pituitary gland
What is suspended from the hypothalamus by stalk (infundibulum)?
What arises from the hypophyseal pouch (an outgrowth of the pharynx)?
What arises from the brain (mainly nervous tissue, not a true gland)?
Hormones travel in the portal system from the _________ to the ____________ __________.
hypothalamus; anterior pituitary
What are two hormones produced by the hypothalamus?
OT (Oxytocin) and ADH
What is a hormone that is secreted by the gonadotrope cells and stimulates the production of egg or sperm cells?
What is a hormone that is secreted by the gonadotrope cells and mainly stimulates hormone production (stimulates ovulation and corpus luteum to secrete progesterone and estrogen in women, and stimulates interstitial cells of testes to secrete testosterone in men)?
What hormone is secreted by the thyrotropes and stimulates growth of gland and secretion of TH?
What is the origin of presynaptic neurons?
the lateral horns of the spinal cord (T1-L2)
Effectors in the body wall are innervated by the sympathetic fibers in _______ nerves
Effectors in the head and thoracic cavity are innervated by fibers in _________ nerves
Effectors in the abdominal cavity are innervated by sympathetic fibers in ______ nerves
splanchnic (celiac, superior and inferior mesenteric ganglion)
What are glands that sit on the superior pole of each kidney?
The adrenal glands
What is the outer layer of the adrenal gland and what does it secrete?
Cortex and it secretes steroid hormones
What is the inner core of the adrenal glands and what does it secrete?
The Medulla (a modified sympathetic ganglion stimulated by preganglionic sympathetic neurons) and it secretes neurotransmitters (hormones) into the blood
What are the origins of preganglionic fibers?
pons and medulla (for cranial nerve nuclei) and sacral spinal cord segments S2-S4
Pathways for preganglionic fibers involve what 4 cranial nerves?
3, 7, 9, and 10
What two things arise from the sacral spinal cord?
pelvic splanchnic nerves and the inferior hypogastric plexus
The ______ nerve narrows the pupil and focuses the lens.
The ______ nerve controls the tear, nasal, and salivary glands.
The _______ nerve controls the parotid salivary gland.
The ________ nerve controls the cardiac, pulmonary, and esophageal plexus.
What is determined by types of neurotransmitters released and types of receptors on target cells?
The effects of ANS
What 2 classes of receptors does acetylcholine bind to?
Nicotinic receptors and muscarinic receptors
What is a baseline firing frequency?
A sympathetic tone
What drugs enhance sympathetic activity by stimulating receptors or increased norepinephrine release?
What drugs suppress sympathetic activity by blocking receptors or inhibiting norepinephrine release?
_______ competes with adenosine (inhibitory; causes sleepiness) by binding to its receptors.
What is a potent pain producing chemical?
What allows awareness of tissue injuries?
Nociceptors (found in all tissues except the brain)
_____ pain is from the skin, muscles, and joints.
______ pain is from stretch, chemical irritants, or ischemia of viscera (poorly localized).
What act as neuromodulators and block the transmission of pain?
What stops pain signals at the dorsal horn?
What is the removing of the pituitary gland?
ACTH controls what?
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