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66 terms

Tissues of the Body

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tissues
cells plus extracellular matrix
epithelial tissue
Cover exposed internal and external surfaces; Line internal vessels, passageways, and cavities; Form glands and produce secretions.
connective tissue
Fill in void spaces
Provide structural support to cells, tissues, and organs
Provide a location to store energy
muscle tissue
Contractile to produce movement or to propel liquids
Maintains body's correct posture
Assists in maintaining body temperature
neural tissue
Carries information to organ / tissue systems
Conducts electrical impulses
Responsible for sensory and motor function
functions of epithelial tissue
1. Provide physical support: Protect against physical, chemical, and biological agents
2. Control permeability
Any substances that enters the body (or an organ) must pass through an epithelium
3. Form glandular tissue and produce specialized secretions
4. Highly specialized epithelium - neuroepithelium provide sensations
cellularity of epithelial tissue
cells bound by cell junctions, little intercellular space
polarity of epithelial tissue
apical surface (outermost) and basal surface (attached to other tissues) are characteristically different, as well as distribution of contents
attachment of epithelial tissue
basal surface bound to basal lamina
avascularity of epithelial tissue
no blood vessels. nutrients obtained by diffusion or absorption from apical or basal surfaces
regeneration of epithelial tissue
cells are continually replaced via divisions of stem cells
microvilli
located on apical surface of most epithelial tissues. increase surface area by 20x, help in absorption and secretion
adjacent connections of epithelial tissue
help to interlock the cells and keep out pathogens
simple epithelium
one layer
cuboidal epithelium
cubed cells
stratified epithelium
more than one layer
pseudostratified epithelium
looks like multiple layers, but really only one
squamous epithelium
thin, flat, irregularly shaped cell
columnar epithelium
tall rectangular shaped cells
transitional epithelium
pseudostratified epithelium found in bladder
glandular epithelia
of ducts and glands which synthesize and release a product
secretion
synthesis and release of a product for further use
excretion
elimination of a waste or product
exocytosis
transport of product outside of the cell
exocrine glands
product release from surface or via a duct, cells polarized. further classifications: single cell, multiple cells, simple/complex duct
endocrine glands
no ducts, no polarization, produce HORMONES, which are easily diffusable into blood stream
merocrine release
product exits cell, cell stays in tact. ex: saliva, sweat
apocrine release
product exits cell inside membrane. ex: breast milk
holocrine release
cell bursts to release product. ex: oil gland
function of connective tissue
1. Protecting and supporting surrounding tissues
2. Interconnecting tissues
3. Establish structural framework
4. Store energy (lipids)
5. Transporting liquids throughout circulatory / lymph systems
6. Defending body from infections or other harmful substances
fluid CT
blood, lymph. Refers to distinct population of cells suspended in watery matrix containing dissolved proteins
CT proper
loose, dense. many types of cells and extracellular fibers in a syrupy ground substance
supporting CT
cartilage, bone. Less diverse cell population than other types of CT.
fibers of CT proper
collagen, elastic, reticular
fibrocytes
fixed second most abundant cell type; found in all connective tissue proper; maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper
mesenchymal cells
fixed stem cells of CT. respond to local injury, and can differentiate into other CT cells
fixed macrophages
large cells that engulf damaged cells or pathogens...immune system
melanocytes
fixed synthesize melanin (brown pigment). common in skin
adipocytes
fixed fat cells
wandering macrophages/microphages
mobile phagocytic cells
lymphocytes
release antibodies, wandering
mast cells
stimulate local inflammation. wandering. contain histamine and heparin
ground substance
slippery fluid/clear gel between cells of CT proper
loose CT proper
types: areolar tissue, adipose tissue, reticular tissue. the "packing material" of the body. fill spaces between organs, provide cushioning, and support epithelia. around blood vessels and nerves, store lipids, and let things diffuse through it.
areolar tissue
most widely distributed connective tissue, it is soft, pliable and "cobwebby", it cushions and protects body organs, holds other tissues together, fills in spaces
adipose tissue
tissue with such high abundance of adipocytes that it loses resemblance of areolar CT. white fat and brown fat
collagen fibers
long, straight, and unbranched; most common fibers in connective tissue proper; flexible; tendons and ligaments
reticular fibers
very thin highly branched fibers found in connective tissue, provide delicate support of organs, and stabilize the positions of functional cells
elastic fibers
Long threads made of the protein elastin. provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers.
reticular tissue
contains reticular fibers, macrophages, fibroblasts, fibrocytes. stroma of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow
dense CT proper
most of the volume made of up collagenous fibers, regular and irregular
dense regular CT
collagen fibers packed tightly and aligned parallel to applied forces. ex: tendons, aponeuroses, elastic tissues, ligaments
dense irregular CT
collagen fibers are arranged in all directions, stretches all ways. ex: skin
elastic tissue
a subset of dense CT proper; large numbers of elastic fibers, giving it a springy nature so it can withstand cycles of expansion and contraction. found between vertebrae of spinal column
blood
fluid CT containing red blood cells/erythrocytes (transport oxygen), white blood cells/leukocytes (immune system), platelets (enzymes for clotting)
lymph
fluid CT as interstitial fluid that enters lymphatic vessels. 99% lymphocytes
hyaline cartilage
most common cartilage. tightly packed collagen fibers, but weakest. ex: btwn sternum and ribs, support of respiratory tract, articular cartilages. white color in the body
fibrocartilage
cartilage with little ground substance that lies in areas of high stress. ex: btwn vertebrae, meniscii of kneww joint
elastic cartilage
cartilage that contains elastic fibers, making is resilient and pliable. ex: external ear, cartilages of the larynx...nose??
chrondrocyte
a cartilage cell.
perichondrium
separates cartilage from surrounding tissues. makde of two layers, an outer fibrous layer, and an inner cellular layer
cartilage
a firm gel that contains chrondroitin sulfates which form proteoglycans. chrondrocytes live in lacunae chambers of water matrix.
skeletal muscle
a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton
cardiac muscle
muscle tissue found only in the heart
smooth muscle
a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)
neuron
contains axon, cell bodies, dendrites, nucleus. the cell that makes neural tissue work.