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cells plus extracellular matrix

epithelial tissue

Cover exposed internal and external surfaces; Line internal vessels, passageways, and cavities; Form glands and produce secretions.

connective tissue

Fill in void spaces
Provide structural support to cells, tissues, and organs
Provide a location to store energy

muscle tissue

Contractile to produce movement or to propel liquids
Maintains body's correct posture
Assists in maintaining body temperature

neural tissue

Carries information to organ / tissue systems
Conducts electrical impulses
Responsible for sensory and motor function

functions of epithelial tissue

1. Provide physical support: Protect against physical, chemical, and biological agents
2. Control permeability
Any substances that enters the body (or an organ) must pass through an epithelium
3. Form glandular tissue and produce specialized secretions
4. Highly specialized epithelium - neuroepithelium provide sensations

cellularity of epithelial tissue

cells bound by cell junctions, little intercellular space

polarity of epithelial tissue

apical surface (outermost) and basal surface (attached to other tissues) are characteristically different, as well as distribution of contents

attachment of epithelial tissue

basal surface bound to basal lamina

avascularity of epithelial tissue

no blood vessels. nutrients obtained by diffusion or absorption from apical or basal surfaces

regeneration of epithelial tissue

cells are continually replaced via divisions of stem cells


located on apical surface of most epithelial tissues. increase surface area by 20x, help in absorption and secretion

adjacent connections of epithelial tissue

help to interlock the cells and keep out pathogens

simple epithelium

one layer

cuboidal epithelium

cubed cells

stratified epithelium

more than one layer

pseudostratified epithelium

looks like multiple layers, but really only one

squamous epithelium

thin, flat, irregularly shaped cell

columnar epithelium

tall rectangular shaped cells

transitional epithelium

pseudostratified epithelium found in bladder

glandular epithelia

of ducts and glands which synthesize and release a product


synthesis and release of a product for further use


elimination of a waste or product


transport of product outside of the cell

exocrine glands

product release from surface or via a duct, cells polarized. further classifications: single cell, multiple cells, simple/complex duct

endocrine glands

no ducts, no polarization, produce HORMONES, which are easily diffusable into blood stream

merocrine release

product exits cell, cell stays in tact. ex: saliva, sweat

apocrine release

product exits cell inside membrane. ex: breast milk

holocrine release

cell bursts to release product. ex: oil gland

function of connective tissue

1. Protecting and supporting surrounding tissues
2. Interconnecting tissues
3. Establish structural framework
4. Store energy (lipids)
5. Transporting liquids throughout circulatory / lymph systems
6. Defending body from infections or other harmful substances

fluid CT

blood, lymph. Refers to distinct population of cells suspended in watery matrix containing dissolved proteins

CT proper

loose, dense. many types of cells and extracellular fibers in a syrupy ground substance

supporting CT

cartilage, bone. Less diverse cell population than other types of CT.

fibers of CT proper

collagen, elastic, reticular


fixed second most abundant cell type; found in all connective tissue proper; maintain the fibers of connective tissue proper

mesenchymal cells

fixed stem cells of CT. respond to local injury, and can differentiate into other CT cells

fixed macrophages

large cells that engulf damaged cells or pathogens...immune system


fixed synthesize melanin (brown pigment). common in skin


fixed fat cells

wandering macrophages/microphages

mobile phagocytic cells


release antibodies, wandering

mast cells

stimulate local inflammation. wandering. contain histamine and heparin

ground substance

slippery fluid/clear gel between cells of CT proper

loose CT proper

types: areolar tissue, adipose tissue, reticular tissue. the "packing material" of the body. fill spaces between organs, provide cushioning, and support epithelia. around blood vessels and nerves, store lipids, and let things diffuse through it.

areolar tissue

most widely distributed connective tissue, it is soft, pliable and "cobwebby", it cushions and protects body organs, holds other tissues together, fills in spaces

adipose tissue

tissue with such high abundance of adipocytes that it loses resemblance of areolar CT. white fat and brown fat

collagen fibers

long, straight, and unbranched; most common fibers in connective tissue proper; flexible; tendons and ligaments

reticular fibers

very thin highly branched fibers found in connective tissue, provide delicate support of organs, and stabilize the positions of functional cells

elastic fibers

Long threads made of the protein elastin. provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers.

reticular tissue

contains reticular fibers, macrophages, fibroblasts, fibrocytes. stroma of spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow

dense CT proper

most of the volume made of up collagenous fibers, regular and irregular

dense regular CT

collagen fibers packed tightly and aligned parallel to applied forces. ex: tendons, aponeuroses, elastic tissues, ligaments

dense irregular CT

collagen fibers are arranged in all directions, stretches all ways. ex: skin

elastic tissue

a subset of dense CT proper; large numbers of elastic fibers, giving it a springy nature so it can withstand cycles of expansion and contraction. found between vertebrae of spinal column


fluid CT containing red blood cells/erythrocytes (transport oxygen), white blood cells/leukocytes (immune system), platelets (enzymes for clotting)


fluid CT as interstitial fluid that enters lymphatic vessels. 99% lymphocytes

hyaline cartilage

most common cartilage. tightly packed collagen fibers, but weakest. ex: btwn sternum and ribs, support of respiratory tract, articular cartilages. white color in the body


cartilage with little ground substance that lies in areas of high stress. ex: btwn vertebrae, meniscii of kneww joint

elastic cartilage

cartilage that contains elastic fibers, making is resilient and pliable. ex: external ear, cartilages of the larynx...nose??


a cartilage cell.


separates cartilage from surrounding tissues. makde of two layers, an outer fibrous layer, and an inner cellular layer


a firm gel that contains chrondroitin sulfates which form proteoglycans. chrondrocytes live in lacunae chambers of water matrix.

skeletal muscle

a muscle that is connected at either or both ends to a bone and so move parts of the skeleton

cardiac muscle

muscle tissue found only in the heart

smooth muscle

a muscle that contracts without conscious control and found in walls of internal organs such as stomach and intestine and bladder and blood vessels (excluding the heart)


contains axon, cell bodies, dendrites, nucleus. the cell that makes neural tissue work.

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