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First Person: Position and Presence
told through the eyes of the main character, minor character, or outside observer
First Person: Reliability
Narrator reliable when observer is used, but may not be reliable when told by character. Narrator may be naive or biased
First Person: Other Features
1. fosters illusions of reality 2. allows author comments 3. establishes intimate relationship between reader and narrator 4. provides structural unity 5. because of subjectivity, may be less reliable
Third Person Omniscient: Consciousness
access to consciousness of more than one character, perhaps all
Third Person Omniscient: Position and Presence
seen through the eyes of outside observer, whose presence is pervasive
Third Person Omniscient: Reliability
If observer is used or if speaker is not emotionally involved with story or character
Third Person Omniscient: Other Features
1. allows great scope and flexibility 2. permits author intrusions,editorializing, evaluations, and comments 3. more reliable than first person perspective
Third Person Limited Omniscient: Position and Presence
seen through the eyes of an outside observer, protagonist, or minor character whose presence dominates
Third Person Limited Omniscient: Reliability
when observer is used; less so when character used or narrator intrudes or comments
Third Person Limited Omniscient: Other Features
1. fosters illusions of reality 2. allows author comments 3. provides intimacy between reader and narrator 4. provides structural unity 5. combines scope of omniscient and immediacy of first person narration
Third Person Objective or Impersonal: Consciousness
little to no access to character's consciousness
Third Person Objective or Impersonal: Position and Presence
seen through the eyes of an outside observer
Third Person Objective or Impersonal: Reliability
reliable as narrator describes, "shows", or reports the action in dramatic scenes
Third Person Objective or Impersonal: Other Features
1. reliable as narrator merely reports without introducing his own comments or judgements 2. leaves much interpretation to the reader 3. restricted-little intimacy 4. also called "the fly on the wall technique"
Stream of Consciousness: Position and Presence
narrator records in detail what passes through character's awareness; narrator doesn't intervene or interpret
Stream of Consciousness: Reliability
reliable unless character's thoughts are random, immature, or fantastic
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