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Analytical Truth

p is an Analytic Truth if it is true just in virtue of the contents or meaning of the terms that make up the claim for p. Ex. all sculptures are objects - just need to determine a thing is a sculpture to make true its an object

Synthetic Truth

p is a Synthetic Truth if its true not just in virture of the contents of the concept that make up the claim of p. Ex. MIchelangelo painted the sistine chapel - true combines conceptual truth of what a painting is with empirical truths, who painted what

A Priori

Dont need to investigate, for a "sculpture is an object" we don't need to go around investigating sculptures in order to know that they are all objects. Therefor its knowable A PRIORI

A Posteriori

"Michelangelo painted the Sistine Chapel" is posteriori. We cannot think our way to the truth. It needs to be investigated to come to knowledge of it

Intrinsiclly Valuable

Some object O is intrinsically value just in case it has value in virtue of what it is. No need of explaining why it is valuable. EX health is intrinsically valuable

Instrumentally Valuable

Some object O is instrumentally valuable just in case it has value in virtue of its securing over value O*. EX money is valuable because we can acquire things with it

Extrinsically Valuable

Some object O is extrinsically valuable just in case it has value only when it stands in a certain relation to some other object O*. EX wedding ring is valuable not in virtue, not because it secures some other good, but rather because of the symbolic relation it stands with respect to marriage


System of implication and consistency relations between propositions. EX if one knows that gravity is a beautiful film, it is false that gravity is


or inference, is a process by which one moves from one belief to the next. Good reasoning is not governed solely by the laws of logic

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