BMEG 245 Midterm 2 Week 6
Terms in this set (40)
Food --> energy, heat loss, biosynthesis building blocks
Use energy and biosynthesis building blocks from catabolism to build complex molecules
Loss of electrons (Fe2+-->Fe3+)
Gain of electrons (A+(e-)+(H+)-->AH)
Substrate concentration where the rate of reaction is half of Vmax
-Used to measure enzyme activity
How does Km relate to affinity?
Small Km--> binds tightly (less enzyme required)
Large Km--> weak binding
Can enzymes cause a reaction with a positive change in free energy to proceed?
No, can only speed up a favourable reaction
3 Ways to make a reaction energetically favourable
Give an energy input
Couple with a favourable reaction
Siphoning off the products
List five activated carriers
ATP, GTP, NADH, NADPH, FADH2
4 steps to generate energy from food (and where they occur)
1. Digestion (stomach, intestines, lysosomes)
2. Glycolysis (cytoplasm) and pyruvate oxidation (inner mitochondrial matrix/membrane)
3. Citric acid cycle (Mitochondrial matrix)
4. Oxidative Phosphorylation (inner mitochondrial membrane)
Three stages of glycolysis and the steps associated with them
Stage 1: Energy investment (steps 1-3)
Stage 2: Sugar cleavage (steps 4-6)
Stage 3: Energy generation (steps 6-10)
Net result of glycolysis (per glucose molecule)
2 Pyruvate + 2 ATP (2 in, 4 out) + 2 NADH
Net result of anaerobic respiration (per glucose molecule)
2 Lactate + 2 ATP
Cancer cells tend towards fermentation over oxidative phosphorylation
Net products of pyruvate oxidation (per glucose)
2 Acetyl Co-A + 2 CO2 + 2NADH
Where does pyruvate oxidation occur?
What enzyme is responsible for pyruvate oxidation?
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex
Does glucose or a fatty acid yield more acetyl-CoA?
Fatty acids (1 palmitic acid --> 8 acetyl-CoA)
-Also generate an FADH2 and NADH in the process
Products of the citric acid cycle (per glucose)
6 NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 GTP + 6CO2
What is the main reason the citric acid cycle wouldn't do a full cycle?
To produce intermediates when cell has excess energy
What is the main regulatory enzyme in glycolysis?
What is the main regulatory enzyme of the citric acid cycle?
Three ways that fats and sugars differ in energy storage
Energy output: fat yields twice the energy per gram
Storage capacity: 1 day for glycogen, 1 month for fat
Weight: Glycogen is heavier, as it binds more water
If oxidative phosphorylation is fully functioning, what compartment of the mitochondria will be the most acidic?
The inter-membrane space
What is the final electron acceptor in the ETC
What are the names and most important properties of the 4 compartments/membranes of the mitochondria
Outer membrane: highly permeable
Inter-membrane space: high [H+]
Inner membrane: folded into cristae, contains ETC and ATP synthase proteins
Mitochondrial matrix: concentrated mix of membranes
Name one important step (or property) in glucose catabolism for each of the 4 mitochondrial compartments
Outer membrane: pyruvate intake via transporter
Inter-membrane space: High proton concentration
Inner membrane: pyruvate transport and ETC
3 properties of mitochondrial dysfunction
3 Syndromes associated with mitochondrial dysfunction
MERFF, NARP, MELAS
Name of ETC complex 1
Name of ETC complex 2
Cytochrome C Reductase
Name of ETC complex 3
Cytochrome C Oxidase
Name the complexes and electron carriers in the order of an electron's path through the ETC
2. NADH Dehydrogenase
4. Cytochrome C Reductase
5. Cytochrome C
6. Cytochrome C Oxidase
Describe how high energy electrons allow hydrogen molecules to move across a membrane
Protons from water molecules on one side of the membrane associate with a high energy electron in the membrane. Some of the energy of the electron causes a conformational change in the membrane proteins, which moves the proton across, leaving a slightly lower energy electron
What are the 4 components of ATP Synthase
1. Transmembrane H+ carrier (rotor ring)
2. Central Stalk
(1+2--> F0 rotor)
3. F1 ATPase head
4. Peripheral Stalk
True or False: ATP Synthase pumps protons unidirectionally into the mitochondrial matrix
False! Can pump them the opposite direction as well
What is the complete energy yield of Glycolysis (in ATP)
2 NADH + 2 ATP --> 5 ATP
What is the complete energy yield of pyruvate oxidation?
2 NADH --> 5 ATP
What is the complete energy yield of the Citric Acid Cycle?
6NADH + 2 FADH2 + 2 GTP --> 20 ATP
What is the total theoretical ATP yield per glucose molecule?
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Unit 7: Moral Development