125 terms

BYU BIO

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

The endosymbiotic hypothesis attempts to explain _____.
the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria
supports the endosymbiotic hypothesis?
A) The shape and size of mitochondria and chloroplasts are similar to bacteria's.
B) Mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA is a circular loop like that of bacteria.
C) Mitochondrial and chloroplast ribosomes resemble those of bacteria.
Some scientists believe mitochondria and chloroplasts may have been bacteria that were engulfed by a larger cell.
TRUE
The _____ participates in ribosome synthesis and is found in the nucleus
the nucleolus
Ribosomes are found _____.
within the cytosol
B) attached to endoplasmic reticulum
Which of the following is a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?
A) steroid synthesis
B) solar energy absorption
C) enzyme synthesis
D) ATP synthesis
steroid synthesis
Plant cells are supported by their cell wall and a central vacuole.
FALSE
A plant's leaf cell can be distinguished from other cells by the large number of _____ it contains.
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts will be found in _____.
plant cells
algal cells
Chlorophyll, the pigment that captures the sun's energy, is found in the _____.
thylakoids
Skeletal muscle cells will have a large number of _____ due to their high demand for energy.
mitochondria
The large surface area needed for the participants in cellular respiration is provided by the _____ of the mitochondria.
cristae
Sperm cells move by means of _______.
flagella
Plant and fungal cells contain centrioles.
FALSE
Which of the following will NOT be found in abundance in an insulin producing pancreas cell?
RER
B) Golgi apparatus
C) chloroplasts
D) ribosomes
CHLOROPLASTS
All living organisms are multicellular
FALSE
A large cell has more surface area to volume than a small cell
FALSE
Features of bacterial Cells:
Cell wall, Plasma membrane nucleus
Photo synthetic bacteria contain
THYLAKOIDS
In photosynthetic bacteria the light sensitive pigments are found in chloroplasts
FALSE
The outermost boundary of prokaryotic cells is their
cell wall
The simple structure of bacteria limits where they can live and what material they can use for energy
false
The organized lattice of protein filaments inside the eukaryotic cell is known as the
cytoskeleton
The contents of an animal cell are separated from its enviorment by the
plasma membrane
The tails of the phospholipids are _____.
nonpolar
B) hydrophobic
C) directed inwards in the bilayer
According to the fluid-mosaic model, _____ are partially or wholly embedded in a fluid phospholipid bilayer.
proteins
The plasma membrane is permeable to some nonlipid substances.
True
The two halves of the plasma membrane are identical.
False
Glycolipids and glycoproteins vary from __________.
species to species
B) individual to individual
C) cell to cell
Transplant rejections are the result of the immune system's response to foreign glycoproteins and glycolipids.
True
A person's blood type is determined by the presence of particular _____ in the red blood cells' membranes.
glycoproteins
Peripheral proteins are found within the plasma membrane.
False
Lipid-soluble molecules move freely across the plasma membrane.
true
Which of the following does NOT move freely (without energy or a carrier protein) across the plasma membrane?
Na+
The hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids in the plasma membrane are what prevent ions and charged molecules from freely crossing the membrane
true
The sugar you stir into your coffee is an example of a _____.
solute
The term hemolysis refers to ______.
red blood cells that burst after being placed in a hypotonic solution
Osmotic pressure affects _____.
water retention water uptake
water absorption
Which of the following correctly describes facilitated transport?
A) It requires the expenditure of energy.
B) Molecules move from high concentration to low concentration.
C) Vacuoles form to move materials.
D) all of the above
Molecules move from high concentration to low concentration.
Which of the following correctly describes active transport?
A) carrier proteins are needed.
B) it requires the expenditure of energy.
C) molecules move from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration.
D) all of the above.
all of the above
Insulin leaves insulin-secreting cells by _____.
exocytosis
Specific molecules enter cells by _____.
receptor mediated endocytosis
Bacteria, fungi and plants all have an extracellular component called a cell wall.
true
The extracellular matrix of animal cells supports them and fills the spaces between the cells.
true
Plant cells are able to exchange materials through _____.
plasmodesmata
Heart cells are able to contract in unison because of the flow of ions through _____.
gap junctions
All cells have a _____.
plasma membrane
The plasma membrane allows anything to move freely in or out of the cell.
FALSE
Glucose contains more energy than the products of its metabolism, CO2 and H2O.
false
All chemicals have the same amount of potential energy.
false
Which of the following is an example of potential energy?
A) a big piece of chocolate cake
B) someone running a marathon
C) a fish swimming upstream
D) a leaf unfolding
A
Which of the following statements about energy is FALSE?
A) Energy can't be created and it can't be destroyed.
B) Chemical energy in our food can be transformed into energy needed for muscle contractions.
C) When energy is transformed, all of it is available to do work.
D) A battery you just bought at the store has potential energy.
c
The breakdown of ATP to ADP + P is a _____ reaction.
exergonic
Which of the following is an example of an endergonic reaction?
A) muscle contraction
B) protein synthesis
C) nerve conduction
D) all of the above
d
ATP is a _____.
nucleotide
The nitrogen base in ATP is _____________.
adenosine
When ATP becomes ADP + P, just enough energy is released to make cilia beat so little energy is wasted.
true
Enzymes _____.
bring together specific molecules and causes them to react with each other
Enzymes lower the energy of activation of reactions so they can occur at body temperature.
true
Which of the following is NOT an enzyme?
A) DNA polymerase
B) carbonic anhydrase
C) sodium bicarbonate
D) helicase
c
Which of the following is a INCORRECT association of enzyme and substrate?
A) maltose - maltase
B) lipid - lipase
C) sucrose - lactase
D) acetylcholine - acetylcholinesterase
c
Enzymes bind to their substrates at any place on the substrate.
false
Denaturation _____. changes the shape of the enzyme
B) prevents the enzyme from binding with its substrate molecules efficiently
C) occurs at temperatures above a certain point
D) all of the above
d
The speed of a reaction that involves an enzyme increases as
substrate concentration increases
When a molecule binds to an enzyme at an allosteric site, _____ inhibition occurs.
noncomptetive
Electron transport systems used to make ATP are located in the _____.
chloroplasts and mitochondria
Cells that do a lot of active transport have many _____.
mitochondria
The exact mechanism of ATP synthesis has been known about for hundreds of years.
false
Oxidation and reduction reactions always occur at the same time because one molecule accepts the electrons given up by another molecule.
true
Most solar radiation passes through the earth's atmosphere and reaches its surface.
false
Photosynthesis utilizes _____.
only visible light
The importance of photosynthesis is that photosynthetic organisms produce ____ for the biosphere.
organic food
Photosynthesis is an energy transformation during which all of the available solar radiation is transformed into chemical bond energy of carbohydrates.
false
In a eukaryotic cell, photosynthesis occurs in the _____.
chloroplasts
The photosynthetic pigments are found in the _____.
thylakoids
CO2 reduction occurs in the _____.
stroma
In some places, thylakoids are stacked to form what look like piles of seeds called grana.
true
Heavy oxygen (18O) was used to show that O2 produced by photosynthesis comes from H2O.
true
The light-independent reactions of photosynthesis must take place in the dark.
false
The light-independent reactions take place in the ___________.
stroma
When the thylakoid pigments absorb solar energy, low energy electrons are removed from _____.
H2O
The light dependent reactions cannot take place without light.
true
When electrons from chlorophyll a move down an electron transport system _____ is produced.
ATP
ATP production during photosynthesis is sometimes called photophosphorylation because light is involved.
false
Which of the following is true of the cyclic electron pathway?
A) ATP and NADPH are both produced.
B) this pathway probably evolved after the non-cyclic electron pathway.
C) the solar energy is absorbed by the PS I antenna complex.
D) all of the above
c
Which of the following is a product of the noncyclic electron pathway?
A) ATP
B) O2
C) NADPH
D) all of the above
d
When H+ flow down their electrochemical gradient through _____ ATP production occurs.
the stroma
The light-dependent reactions take place in the _____.
thylakoids
Which product of the light-dependent reactions is used in the light-independent reactions?
o2 and NADPH
The energy and electrons needed for the reduction synthesis are supplied by _____
NADPH AND ATP
The first step of the Calvin cycle is
CO2 fixation
CO2 fixation occurs when CO2 combines with _____.
ribulose bisphosphate
About 20-50% of the protein content in chloroplasts is _____ which speeds up CO2 fixation.
RuBP carboxylase
Which correctly describes the light independent reactions? ATP is produced
B) CO2 is reduced
C) sunlight is required
D) O2 is produced
b
Five molecules of PGAL are used to produce _____ so that the Calvin cycle can continue.
RuBP
The CAM light-independent reactions occur only at night so H2O can be conserved.
true
A solution to global warming is _____.
A) plant more shrubs and trees
B) use fewer fossil fuels
C) protect the rainforests
D) all of the above
D
All of the potential energy in the bonds of glucose is transformed into energy in ATP molecules.
false
Which of the following is a coenzyme associated with cellular respiration?
NAD+ and FAD
NAD+ is _____ when it accepts two electrons and a hydrogen ion (H+).
reduced
Which of the following statements correctly describes glycolysis?
A) Glycolysis occurs in the mitochondria.
B) glycolysis requires O2.
C) Glycolysis produces two molecules of pyruvate.
D) all of the above
c
Which of the following is not a product of the complete breakdown of glucose?
A) O2
B) CO2
C) ATP
D) H2O
a
The coenzymes NAD and FAD carry electrons to the _____.
electron transport system
Cells only need a small amount of NAD+ because each NAD+ can be used to transport electrons over and over.
false
Glycolysis occurs in the _____.
cytosol
There are some bacteria that die in the presence of oxygen.
true
When oxygen is available, pyruvate enters the _____.
mitochondria
The ATP produced during glycolysis are produced by _____.
substrate-level phosphorylation
Many ATP are produced during the transition reaction.
false
When electrons are removed from pyruvate in the transition reaction, they are accepted by _____.
NAD+
Acetyl Co-A is formed during the transition reaction by attaching _____ to a two-carbon acetyl group.
coenzyme A
The first metabolite of the Citric Acid cycle is __________.
citrate
During the Citric Acid cycle, all of the electrons are accepted by the electron carrier NAD+.
false
Which of the following is an output of the Citric Acid cycle?
A) CO2
B) ATP
C) FADH2
D) all of the above
D
The electrons that enter the electron transport system are carried there by _____.
A) NADH
B) FADH2
The electron transport system is located in the _____.
cristae
When O2 is reduced during the electron transport system, _____ is produced.
h2o
When NADH produced during the transition reaction and Citric Acid cycle delivers electrons to the electron transport system, _____ ATP is/are produced.
3
The final electron acceptor in the electron transport system is _____.
o2
The NADH produced during glycolysis produces only 2 ATP in the electron transport system in all cells except heart, liver and bacterial cells.
true
Animal cells perform _____ fermentation.
lactate
The product of alcoholic fermentation that allows us to make bread is _____.
co2
During fermentation, _____ is regenerated and it returns to glycolysis to pick up more electrons.
NAD+
Athletes' cells _____.
A) metabolize more fats for ATP which maintains blood glucose levels
B) have the same number of mitochondria as a "couch potato"
C) produce large quantities of lactate and H+
D) all of the above
A
Glucose is the only molecule that can be used to produce ATP.
false