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Study Guide: Unit 3 Test HONORS BIOLOGY: CELL ENERGY, Hey Mr. W Unit 3 Test
Terms in this set (94)
(Energy) What is energy?
A property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms
(Energy) Forms of energy
kinetic and potential
(Energy) kinetic energy
The energy an object has due to its motion
(Energy) potential energy
An object's potential to do work; stored energy
(Energy) Chemical potential energy
A form of potential energy that is stored in chemical bonds between atoms
(Energy) Where is energy stored in molecules?
In the bonds of molecules (chemical bonds)
(Energy) Gravitational potential energy
Energy that an object has depending on its mass and height (typically when the object is falling)
(Energy) Law of Conservation of Energy
Energy can be neither created nor be destroyed; however, it can change from one form to another.
(Energy) Examples of the Law of Conservation of Energy
Photosynthesis (light energy is transformed into chemical potential energy in the form of glucose)
(Chemical Energy) Where is energy stored in ATP?
In the bond of the third phosphate group because it is unstable/easily broken (smaller amount of energy in first and second bonds, but don't need to know that)
(Chemical Energy and ATP) How is energy released from ATP?
ATP loses its 3rd phosphate group, releasing energy stored in the bond that the cell can use to do work
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is ATP used for?
Powers everything [Carries all energy required for cell functions, builds molecules (anabolism), moves materials by active transport, etc]
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What are the most important sources of energy?
Carbohydrates and Lipids.
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What are the three parts [Structure] of ATP?
Adenine (base), ribose, three phosphate groups.
(Chemical Energy and ATP-Structure of ATP) What is the importance of the phosphate groups in ATP?
This is where energy is stored in ATP (between the phosphates) [They release energy when they break apart, good for quickly needed energy]
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is the scientific name for ATP?
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is ADP?
(When ATP looses 3rd phosphate group, ATP become ADP) A lower-energy molecule that can be converted into ATP by the addition of a phosphate group.
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is the scientific name for ADP?
(Chemical Energy and ATP) Describe Cycle: ATP-ADP-ATP
When loses 3rd phosphate group, ATP become ADP, when gaining 3rd phosphate group, ADP becomes ATP
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What provides the energy to add phosphate back onto ADP producing ATP?
The energy from the gradual break down of food.
(Chemical Energy and ATP) Energy available from different organic compounds
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is a calorie (small c)?
The amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is a Calorie (big C)?
One Calorie=one thousand calories,
calories are measured in Calories so it is easier for people to understand how many calories they need to consume a day without getting lost of confused (it simplifies the number, so instead of saying this has 200,000 calories, you would say this has 200 Calories)
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is an autotroph/producer?
An organism that makes its own food using light, water, carbon dioxide, or other chemicals
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is a heterotroph/consumer?
An organism that cannot make its own food, and eat other organisms as a food source
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What is chemosynthesis?
A process by which some organisms use chemical energy instead of light energy to make sugar.
(Chemical Energy and ATP) Where is chemosynthesis found?
Deep sea thermal vent (places where sunlight cannot be seen)
(Chemical Energy and ATP) What are the reactants and products of chemosynthesis?
At these hydrothermal vents, vent bacteria oxidize hydrogen sulfide, add carbon dioxide and oxygen, and produce sugar, sulfur, and water: CO2 + 4H2S + O2 -> CH20 + 4S + 3H2O. Produces sugar
process that captures energy from sunlight to make sugars that store chemical potential energy
(Photosynthesis) Equation for photosynthesis
6CO2 (carbon dioxide) + 6H2O (water) ---energy--> C6H12O6 (glucose) + 6O2 (oxygen)
(Photosynthesis) Electromagnetic spectrum
The range of wavelengths or frequencies over which electromagnetic radiation extends.
(Photosynthesis) What are the colors of (white) visible light?
Red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. R.O.Y.G.B.I.V.
(in green plant cells) a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place
Green pigment in plants that absorbs light energy used to carry out photosynthesis.
(Photosynthesis) Chlorophyll A and B (contrast)
Chlorophyll a is the primary photosynthetic pigment while chlorophyll b is the accessory pigment that collects energy and passes it on to chlorophyll a
(Photosynthesis) accessory pigments
light-absorbing compounds, found in photosynthetic organisms, that work in conjunction with chlorophyll [a]
(Photosynthesis) Colors absorbed by chlorophyll and reflected
Absorb mostly red and blue wavelengths, reflect green light (which is why plants with chlorophyll appear green)
stacks of coin-shaped, membrane-enclosed compartments called thylakoids, important for photosynthesis (overall stacks)
Membranous structures within a chloroplast that serve as the site for light harvesting in photosynthesis.
the fluid that surrounds grana within the chloroplast
(Photosynthesis) Importance of membranes [what reactions take place here?]
In photosynthesis the membrane inside of a
Light dependent stage of photosynthesis takes place in that membrane
(Photosynthesis) Stages of Photosynthesis
light-dependent reactions and the Calvin cycle (light-independent reactions).
(Photosynthesis) light-dependent reactions
reactions of photosynthesis that use energy from light to produce ATP and NADPH
(Photosynthesis)- light-dependent reactions What powers LD reaction?
(Photosynthesis) Photosystem I
One of two light-harvesting units of a chloroplast's thylakoid membrane; it uses the P680 reaction-center chlorophyll
Where light energy is harvested/transformed( into ATP or NADPH)
(Photosynthesis) Photosystem II
a specialized protein complex that uses light energy to transfer electrons from water to plastoquinone, resulting in the production of oxygen and the release of reduced plastoquinone into the photosynthetic membrane
(Photosynthesis)- light-dependent reactions Light absorbing molecules
Chlorophyll absorbs energy from sunlight. (photosystem)
(Photosynthesis) Electron transport chain
Transferring energetic electrons with the purpose of pulling in hydrogen ions and to make NADPH
(Photosynthesis)- light-dependent reactions Importance of H+ ions, electrons and oxygen (from breakdown of H2O)
Peer turbine to produce atp to power Calvin cycle electrons help make NADPH Electrons pump hydrogen ions into cell and make NADPH
Energy molecule produces 4
ATP Produced by hydrogen ions NADPH- produces by sunlight and then energinzed electrons
(Photosynthesis)- light-dependent reactions where does it occur
(Leaf Structure and Function) Veins function and location
Veins support the leaf and are filled with vessels that transport food, water, and minerals to the plant.
(Leaf Structure and Function) Palisade function and location
Most food production takes place in elongated cells called palisade mesophyll.
(Leaf Structure and Function) Epidermis function and location
layers on top and bottom of a leaf that are sandwiched between two layers of tough skin cells, act as a semi-permeable barrier
(Cellular respiration) Aerobic
Process that requires oxygen
(Leaf Structure and Function) Stoma(ta) function and location
A pore formed by guard cells, gases enter and exit the leaf through the stomata.
(Leaf Structure and Function) cuticle function and location
The epidermis also secretes a waxy substance called the cuticle (on top of the leaf). These layers protect the leaf from insects, bacteria, and other pests
(Leaf Structure and Function) Spongy Mesophyll function and location
Gas exchange occurs in the air spaces between the oddly-shaped cells of the spongy mesophyll.
(Leaf Structure and Function) Guard cells function and location
Among the epidermal cells are pairs of sausage-shaped guard cells. Each pair of guard cells forms a pore (called stoma; the plural is stomata).
(Leaf Structure and Function) Leaf function
Leaves are the powerhouse of plants. In most plants, leaves are the major site of food production (photosynthesis) for the plant.
(Cellular respiration) Location of glycolysis
Cytoplasm (doesn't even need mitochondria)
(Cellular respiration) Krebs cycle-starting molecule
C6H12O6 first transformed into pyruvate in glycolysis
(Cellular Respiration) Mitochondrian
Cell organelle that converts the chemical energy stored in food into compounds that are more convenient for the cell to use (ATP)
(Cellular Respiration) Glycolysis (reactants and products)
glucose (six carbon molecules) to 2 pairs of three-carbon molecules called pyrovic acid
(Cellular respiration)-Electron Transport Chain: location it takes place
Takes place in inner membrane
(Cellular Respiration) Overall equation (reactants and products) and total 36 ATP produced
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---- 6CO2 + 6H2O
(Cellular respiration) Krebs cycle-2 molecules ATP produced
ten NADH!! molecules, and two FADH2!!molecules
Make energy that is going to be used in the next stage
Energy molecules powering electron transport chain
(Cellular respiration) Krebs cycle-energy molecules produced
NADH, ATP, FADH(small)2
(Cellular respiration)-Electron Transport Chain: source of energy
FADH2 and NADH
(Cellular respiration) Net ATP production
Uses 2 ATP --> produces 4 ATP = 2 net ATP produced
(Cellular respiration)-Electron Transport Chain: 32 molecules of ATP produced
2- glycolysis 2- keen cycle 32- in electron transport chain
(Cellular respiration) Krebs cycle-location
takes place in interior space of mitochondria.
(Cellular respiration)-Electron Transport Chain: O(small)2 -> H(small)2O, what is the importance of oxygen?
(acts as the final electron acceptor, resulting in the formation of H2O)
Going to grab electrons and the hydrogen ions and make water
(Energy and Exercise) Quick energy (source and amount)
source: lactic acid fermentation
amount: can supply for about 90 seconds
(Fermentation) alcoholic fermentation (reactants and products)
(Photosynthesis) light independent reaction
chemical reactions that convert carbon dioxide and other compounds into glucose (also known as Calvin cycle)
(Photosynthesis) light independent reaction- where does it occur?
Occur in the stroma of chloroplasts
(Photosynthesis) base of food chain (sugars and polysaccharides)
Photosynthetic organisms (like plants) producers
(Photosynthesis) Functions of photosynthesis
Plant produce food for themselves and other organisms
(Photosynthesis)- light-dependent reactions energy molecules produced
ATP and NADPH
(Photosynthesis) Energy molecules (Importance to light independent reaction)
ATP and NADPH👍
(Fermentation) lactic acid fermentation- where and when is it utilized
occurs in muscle cells
(Fermentation) alcoholic fermentation- where and when is it utilized
(Photosynthesis) light independent reaction- energy molecules converted (ADP and NADP)
(Photosynthesis) what powers light independent reaction
uses energy produced from light-dependent reactions
(Photosynthesis) Regulation of Earth's atmosphere (carbon and oxygen cycles)
removes carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere and produces oxygen
(Fermentation) lactic acid fermentation (reactants and products)
Energy from NADH converts pyruvate into lactic acid
NADH is changed back into NAD+
(Fermentation) two types
lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation
(Photosynthesis)-light-dependent reactions Reactants and products
(Photosynthesis) ATP synthase (what does it produce and what powers it?)
Produce Energy to charge up ATP molecules powered by: flow of hydrogen ions
(Fermentation) Purpose of fermentation (when does it occur and why)
when: Occurs when oxygen not is not available for cellular
why: allows glycolysis to continue making ATP when oxygen is unavailable
(energy and exercise) long term energy (source and amount)
source: Energy stored in muscles and other tissue in form of carbohydrate glycogen
amount: Enough glycogen for about 15 to 20 min.
(energy and exercise) What does the body use for long term energy when glycogen is used up?
body breaks down other stored molecules including fats for energy
(Photosynthesis) light independent reaction- reactants and products
6 carbon dioxide+6 water=glucose and 12 oxygen (6CO(small)2+6H(small)2)--->C6H12O6 6O2)
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