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chemistry #4 Ionic bonding

chemistry #4 Ionic bonding
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2 classes of chemical compounds
1. ionic compounds
2. molecular compounds
ionic compounds traits (5)
1. - have high melting points, brittle, usually solid crystal at room temperature
2. - good conductors of electricity when they are in liquid state or in solution.
3. do not have molecules as their basic structural unit
4. positively and negatively charged particles called ions are present
5. after the transfer each atom becomes oppositely charged-->thus attracted to each other
molecular compound traits (4)
1. - have lower melting points and often pliable
2. - tend to be gases, liquids, or low-melting solids.
3. - do not conduct electricity in their liquid state.
4. basic structural unit is a molecule
5. sharing causes a region of high electron density (neg charge) btw atoms & both nuclei are attracted to the high density
Ionic bonds occur between
1. metal and nonmetal
2. metal and polyatomic ion
or
3. polyatomic ion and a polyatomic ion.
ionic bonds are
1. a complete transfer of electrons from one atom to another
2. formed through the transfer of one or more electrons from one atom or group of atoms to another atom or group of atoms = ionic compound
ions
charged (atom or a group of atoms) particles resulting from the loss or gain of electrons.
chemical bond
1. is the attractive force (electrical)that holds two atoms together in a more complex unit.
2. They form as a result of interaction between electrons found in the outer most shell of the elements.
3. Join the atoms together in a compound
Covalent bonds
1. formed through the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between two atoms = molecular compound
2. occur between 2 nonmetals
molecule
unit of matter that results when two or more atoms are joined by covalent bonds
structural formula
shows the specific connections between atoms
cation
positively charge particle resulting from the loss of one or more electrons.
anion
negatively charged particle resulting from the gain of one or more electrons.
polyatomic ions
1. charged, covalently bonded groups of atoms.
i. Charged "pieces of molecules" - consist of specific number and kinds of atoms joined together by covalent bonds in a definite way.
Octet rule
1. refers to the tendency of atoms to prefer to have eight electrons in the valence shell. When atoms have fewer than eight electrons, they tend to react and form more stable compounds.
2. want to be like Noble gases
3. except H, B, Be