"Any nonliving component of an ecosystem (e.g., sunlight, air, water, soil)"
The kinetic energy required to initiate a chemical reaction
The movement of a substance across a plasma (cell) membrane against a concentration gradient
The property of sticking to some other substance
Growing or metabolizing only in the presence of molecular oxygen
The process by which pyruvic acid is converted to ethyl alcohol
"Alternate forms of a gene or DNA sequence, which occur on either of two homologous chromosomes in a diploid organism"
Alternation of generation
Alternating sexual and asexual generation reproduction
"Any of 20 basic building blocks of proteins--composed of a free amino (NH2) end, a free carboxyl (COOH) end, and a side group (R)"
Growing or metabolizing only in the absence of molecular oxygen
"Third phase of mitosis, beginning when sister chromatids separate from each other and ending when a complete set of daughter chromosomes have arrived at each of the two poles of the cell"
The ability of a microorganism to produce a protein that disables an antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell
The practical use of scientific information to improve human life
Breeding organisms by humans for specific phenotypic characteristics
Nonsexual means of reproduction which can include grafting and budding
An organism that uses energy to synthesize organic molecules from inorganic substances
"A single-celled, microscopic prokaryotic organism"
Base pair (bp)
A pair of complementary nitrogenous bases in a DNA molecule
The wide diversity and interrelatedness of earth organisms based on genetic and environmental factors
Change in allele frequency of a species or population over time
A geographic area characterized by specific kinds of plants and animals
The area on and around Earth where life exists
A living component of an ecosystem
"Compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in the approximate ratio of C:2H:O (e.g., sugars, starches, and cellulose)"
"The events of cell division; includes interphase, mitosis, and cytokinesis"
The process by which cells generate ATP through a series of redox (chemical) reactions
"The theory that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic units of organisms, and that cells come only from existing cells"
The central portion of the chromosome to which the spindle fibers attach during mitotic and meiotic division
A plastid containing chlorophyll; the site of photosynthesis
Each of the two daughter strands of a duplicated chromosome joined at the centromere during mitosis and meiosis.
"A single DNA molecule, a tightly coiled strand of DNA"
Chromosome theory of heredity
The theory that states that genes are located on chromosomes and that each gene occupies a specific place on a chromosome
Citric acid cycle (Kreb's)
Series of chemical reactions in aerobic respiration in which a acetyl coenzyme A is completely degraded to carbon dioxide and water with the release of metabolic energy that is used to produce ATP; also known as Kreb's cycle
A branching diagram that illustrates taxonomic relationships based on the principles of claudistics
An inheritance relationship in which neither of two alleles of the same gene totally mask the other
The property of sticking together; like substances sticking together
The close association of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is advantageous to one and doesn't affect the other(s)
All the populations in one area
The division of cytoplasm of one cell into two new cells
Framework of the cell composed of a variety of filaments and fibers that support cell structure and drive cell movement
Chromosome abnormality in which part of the chromosome is missing; loss of one or more base pairs from DNA which can result in a frameshift
Dichotomous key (classification key)
Classification tool used in identifying organisms or materials
The process by which molecules move from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration
DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)
"An organic acid and polymer composed of four nitrogenous bases--adenine, thymine, cytosine, and guanine; the genetic material of most organisms; exists as a double-stranded molecule held together by hydrogen bonds "
"Taxonomic category that includes one or more kingdom (e.g., Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya)"
A characteristic in which an allele that expresses its phenotype even in the presence of a recessive allele
"The DNA molecule, resembling a spiral staircase in which the paired bases form the steps and the sugar-phosphate backbones form the rails"
The study of the interactions of organisms with their environment and with each other
The organisms in a plant population and the biotic and abiotic factors which impact on them
Electron transport chain
Series of chemical reactions in the thylakoid membrane or inner mitochondrial membrane during which hydrogens or their electrons are passed along with the release of energy
A reaction requiring a net input of free energy
The process by which a cell surrounds and engulfs substances
Use of energy
Summarizes interactions of matter and energy at each trophic level
Proteins that control the various steps in all chemical reactions
An outbreak of a contagious disease that spreads widely and rapidly
"An organism whose cells possess a nucleus and other membrane-bound vesicles, including all members of the protist, fungi, plant and animal kingdoms; and excluding viruses, bacteria, and blue-green algae"
The long-term process through which a population of organisms accumulates genetic changes that enable its members to successfully adapt to environmental conditions and to better exploit food resources
A reaction that gives off free energy
The process in which a vesicle inside a cell fuses with a cell membrane and releases its contents to the external environment
A mutation that results in the misreading of the code during translation because of the change in the reading frame
Microorganisms that lacks chlorophyll
"A haploid sex cell, egg or sperm, that contains a single copy of each chromosome"
The functional unit of heredity; a locus on a chromosome that encodes a specific protein or several related proteins
"The complete genetic material contained in an individual; the genetic complement contained in the chromosomes of a given organism, usually the haploid chromosome state"
The structure of DNA that determines the expression of a trait
A category including closely related species; interbreeding between organisms within the same category can occur
Germ Theory of Disease (Koch's Postulates)
A set of criteria used to establish that a particular infectious agent causes a disease
A pathway in which glucose is oxidized to pyruvic acid
An organism that obtains organic food molecules by eating organisms or their by-products
The stable internal conditions of a living thing
Animal or plant on which or in which another organism lives
Human Genome Project
A project coordinated by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the entire nucleotide sequence of the human chromosomes
A relatively weak bond formed between any hydrogen atom (which is covalently bound to a nitrogen or oxygen atom) and a nitrogen or oxygen with an unshared electron pair
Statement or predictions that can be tested
"A condition where a heterozygous off- spring has a phenotype that is distinctly different from, and intermediate to, the parental phenotypes"
The law stating that pairs of genes separate independently of one another in meiosis
Period of time where a cell carries on metabolism and replicates chromosomes prior to cell division
A mutation that occurs when a chromosome piece breaks off and reattaches in reverse orientation
"Species characterized by slow maturation, few young, slow population growth and reproduction late in life"
"All of the chromosomes in a cell or an individual organism, visible through a microscope during cell division"
An observation that happens every time under a certain set of conditions
Lactic acid fermentation
The process by which pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid
Reaction of photosynthesis that requires light; light energy is absorbed converted to chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH
The fixing of carbon dioxide in a 3 carbon compound for use in sugar production or other end products
Any of a group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents; serve as energy storage and are important components of cell membranes
"A type or phase of the virus life cycle during which the virus integrates into the host chromosome of the infected cell, often remaining essentially dormant for some period of time"
"A phase of the virus life cycle during which the virus replicates within the host cell, releasing a new generation of viruses when the infected cell lyses"
One of the brief periods of time during which large numbers of species disappeared
The reduction division process by which haploid gametes and spores are formed consisting of a single duplication of the genetic material followed by two mitotic divisions
Second phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the equator of the cell
Organelles that are the sites of aerobic respiration in eukaryotic cells
The replication of a cell to form two daughter cells with identical sets of chromosomes
The study of the biochemical and molecular interactions within living cells
The branch of genetics that deals with the expression of genes by studying the DNA sequences of chromosomes
Three or more alleles of the same gene that code for a single trait
An alteration in DNA structure or sequence of a gene
A form of symbiosis in which both organisms benefit from living together
The differential survival and reproduction of organisms with genetic characteristics that enable them to better utilize environmental resources
"The purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine, cytosine, and uracil) that comprise DNA and RNA molecules"
"A plant that lacks vascular tissue and true roots, stems, and leaves"
"The two nucleic acids, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are made up of long chains of molecules called nucleotides"
"A building block of DNA and RNA, consisting of a nitrogenous base, a five-carbon sugar, and a phosphate group"
The membrane-bound region of a eukaryotic cell that contains the chromosomes
A cell structure that carries out a specialized function in the life of a cell
The diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
The close association of two or more dissimilar organisms where the association is harmful to at least one
The movement of substances across a plasma (cell) membrane without the use of cell energy
An epidemic over a wide geographic area and affecting an exceptionally high proportion of the population
Organism which can cause disease in another organism
"A substance that kills harmful organisms (e.g., an insecticide or fungicide)"
Indicates the relative concentration of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions in a substance
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs solutes of fluids
A type of endocytosis in which a cell engulfs large particles or whole cells
"The observable characteristics of an organism, the expression of gene alleles (genotype) as an observable physical or biochemical trait"
A class of lipid molecules in which a phosphate group is linked to glycerol and two fatty acetyl groups; a chief component of biological membranes
The process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy stored in organic molecules
Plasma (cell) membrane
A selectively permeable surface that encloses the cell contents and through which all materials entering or leaving a cell must pass
A change in a single base pair of a DNA sequence in a gene
Molecules having uneven distribution of charges
A local group of organisms belonging to the same species and capable of interbreeding
Succession that occurs in a newly formed habitat that has never before sustained life
A bacterial cell lacking a true nucleus; its DNA is usually in one long strand
First phase of mitosis in which duplicated chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle fibers begin to form
An organic compound composed of one or chains of polypeptides which in turn are formed from amino acids
A formation of proteins using information coded on DNA and carried by RNA
The gathering of new information or the discovery of a new relationship or fact for sake of knowledge
A type of grid used to show the gametes of each parent and their possible offspring; a type of grid that can indicate all the possible outcomes of a genetic cross
A method of determining the age of an object by measuring the amount of a specific radioactive isotope it contains
Characterized as having a phenotype expressed only when both copies of the gene are mutated or missing
A method of determining the age of fossils by comparing them to other fossils in different layers of rock
A sub-cellular structure that is the site of protein synthesis during translation.
RNA (ribonucleic acid)
"An organic acid composed of a single strand of nucleotide that acts as a messenger between DNA and the ribosomes and carries out the process of protein synthesis: composed units of adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil "
The sequential replacement of population in a disrupted habitat
The law stating that pairs of genes separate in meiosis and each gamete receives one gene of a pair
"Description of a trait that is caused by a gene whose expression differs in male and females; (e.g., male patterned baldness)"
"The presence of a gene on a sex chromosome; (e.g., hemophilia, color-blindness)"
"The process where two cells (gametes) fuse to form one hybrid, fertilized cell"
A classification of related organisms that can freely interbreed
A form taken by certain microbes that enables them to exist in a dormant stage. It is an asexual reproductive cell
The close association of two or more dissimilar organisms where both receive an advantage from the association
The procedure of assigning names to the kinds and groups of organisms according to their taxa
Practical use of scientific information to improve the quality of human life: see also applied science
"Final phase of mitosis during which chromosomes uncoil, a nuclear envelope returns around the chromatin, and a nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter cell"
A well tested explanation of natural events
The maintenance of internal temperature within a range that allows cells to function efficiently
The process of converting the genetic code in RNA into the amino acid sequence that makes up a protein
Process in which RNA is made from DNA
A preparation of dead or weakened pathogen that is used to induce formation of antibodies or immunity against the pathogen
Differences in the frequency of genes and traits among individual organisms within a population
A plant that has phloem and xylem
"An infectious particle composed of a protein capsule and a nucleic acid core, which is dependent on a host organism for replication"