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Chapter 10: Intelligence, Problem Solving, and Creativity
Terms in this set (125)
a set of cognitive skills that includes abstract thinking, reasoning, problem solving, and the ability to acquire knowledge. Other, less-agreed-on qualities of intelligence include mathematical ability, general knowledge, and creativity
Intelligence may be our inherent potential for learning, how fast we are able to learn, or the body of knowledge we possess. It may also include the ability to do things in ways that other people have never tried. T/F
Two distinct views dominate our understanding of intelligence. One view says that intelligence is a single, general ability; the other says that intelligence consists of multiple abilities. T/F
________ ________ developed the first theory of intelligence and proposed that it is best thought of as a single, general capacity, or ability. Spearman came to this conclusion after research consistently showed that specific dimensions, or factors, of intelligence—are correlated strongly with one another, suggesting that they were all measuring pretty much the same thing.
is the ability to solve problems and analyze information using language-based reasoning. It includes knowledge of vocabulary and producing and comprehending written or spoken language.
picture smart; the ability or mental skill to solve spatial problems such as navigating and visualizing objects from different angles.
the ability to reason and solve problems by carrying out mathematical operations and by using logic.
intelligence is ....
the capacity to understand the world and think rationally
Spearman's theory is now known as a __________ theory of intelligence, because it describes intelligence as a single, general factor made up of specific components. This theory influenced intelligence test construction for most of the 20th century.
multiple-factor theory of intelligence
holds that the different aspects of intelligence are distinct enough that multiple abilities must be considered, not just one. This perspective is illustrated by the question, How are you intelligent?
One of the first people to "break intelligence in two" was _________ _______, with his notion of fluid and crystallized intelligence
involves raw mental ability, pattern recognition, and abstract reasoning and is applied to a problem that you have never confronted before. It is called "fluid" because it involves new problems and requires flexible solutions. Fluid intelligence is not a result of what you have already learned and nor is it influenced by culture or the size of your vocabulary.
involves using already learned skills, experience, and knowledge to solve problems. Because it involves what we have already learned (acquired) knowledge, crystallized intelligence becomes more and more stable with time—much like a crystal.
the ________-factors theory of intelligence states that different factors of intelligence are distinct enough that it should not be considered a single factor
one of Carrols three levels of intelligence; a general intelligence factor that, according to Spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
One of Carroll's three levels of intelligence, including abilities such as crystallized and fluid intelligence, as well as memory, learning, and processing speed.
One of Carroll's three levels of intelligence, including many distinct abilities.
Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model of intelligence
proposes that there is a three-tier structure to intelligence
one of Carrols three levels of intelligence, it includes nearly 70 distinct abilities. what type of intelligence is it?
the CHC model of intelligence includes _______ intelligence and ________ intelligence
Not only does knowledge-based crystallized intelligence improve until middle age, more specifically vocabulary, short-term working memory (digit span and visual problems) remain rather constant and only dip after age 65. T/F
according to Sternberg, an integrated set of abilities needed to attain success in life
triarchic theory of intelligence
Robert Sternberg's theory that describes intelligence as having analytic, creative and practical dimensions
Analytic Intelligence (Sternberg)
involves judging, evaluating, or comparing and contrasting information (Sternberg, 1988). Analytic intelligence resembles the kind of academic intelligence that leads to high scores on tests of intelligence. For example, an analytic problem might require a person to decipher the meaning of an uncommon word from its context in a sentence, or it might ask the person to determine the next number in a series of numbers (Sternberg, 2003).
Creative Intelligence (Sternberg)
which involves coming up with fresh and useful ideas for solving problems. For example, a person might be given a number of cartoon images and then be asked to come up with a caption for each one (Sternberg, 2006b). Traditional measures of intelligence do not measure creative intelligence well.
according to Sternberg, ________ intelligence involves judging, evaluating, or comparing and contrasting information.
of the three types of intelligence in sternbergs theory, ______ intelligence would aid someone in determining the next number in a series of numbers.
Practical Intelligence (Sternberg)
is the ability to solve problems of everyday life efficiently. Practical intelligence plays a role in knowing how to do one's job well and requires knowledge and skills that one learns "on the street" rather than in the classroom.
The person who has developed the most elaborate theory of multiple intelligences is __________ _________ (1983, 1993). He argues that intelligence consists of at least eight distinct capacities: linguistic, mathematical-logical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, intrapersonal, interpersonal, and naturalistic.
the ability to recognize, classify, and understand the plants and animals in one's environment. In cultures that have formal science, highly skilled people in this domain of intelligence are likely to become biologists, botanists, and animal scientists or veterinarians.
is the ability to perceive and understand other people's intentions, emotions, motives, and behaviors and is very closely related to what other psychologists refer to as "emotional intelligence." Interpersonally intelligent people therefore work well and know how to get along with others.
Ability to learn, understand, and use both spoken and written language
Ability to analyze information and problems logically and to perform mathematical operations
Ability in performing, composing, or appreciating musical patterns
Ability to use one's body or parts of it to solve problems or create products
Ability to be aware of, understand, and regulate one's own behavior, thoughts, feelings, and motivations
Alfred Binet is credited with...
developing the first true test of intelligence
More than 40 schools in the United States and even more abroad have been designed to put into practice the development of all Gardner's forms of intelligence. T/F
a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet; the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
Mental age is a norm, or average, because it is based on what most children at a particular age level can do. T/F
developed by William Stern in which mental age is divided by chronological age and multiplied by 100 to determine an intelligence score. The ratio of mental age over chronological age is commonly known as a person's intelligence quotient, or IQ. If a child had a mental age of 10 and was 10 years old, she had an IQ of 100 (10/10 × 100). But if she had a mental age of 12 and was only 10 years old, she had an IQ of 120; if she had a mental age of 8 and was 10 years old, her IQ was 80.
About 10 years after Binet published his first test, Lewis Terman, an American psychologist, translated the test for American students. Because Terman taught at Stanford University, he named the test the. _______-_______ test. The most significant changes Terman made were to establish national norms and to adopt and apply the ratio score of MA/CA to a widely used IQ test.
The equivalent chronological age of people who score a particular value on an IQ test is the __________ age.
according to William stern, ______ is calculated as ______ divided by chronological age times 100.
IQ; mental age
the __________ _________ is a measure that takes into account both mental and chronological ages.
the ______-_______ intelligence test is based on original intelligence test created by Terman.
In the 1930s, David Wechsler created new intelligence tests to measure adult intelligence. Wechsler's test became known as the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, or WAIS (Wechsler, 1944, 1958). Later he developed a test for children, the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC). T/F
The WAIS and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children are the most widely administered intelligence tests in the United States. T/F
Moreover, until the 1980s, IQ test developers ignored advances in neuroscience (Kaufman, 1979). In the late 20th century, a new approach to intelligence testing incorporated Piaget's ideas, findings from neuroscience, and learning style differences. T/F
Kaufman-Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC)
individual intelligence test for children; grounded heavily in information-processing theory.
how did the K-ABC differ from the Stanford-Binet and Wechsler tests in four ways?
First, it was the first IQ test to be guided by theories of intelligence, in particular Cattell and Horn's concepts of fluid and crystallized intelligence and Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Second, influenced by Piaget, the Kaufmans included fundamentally different kinds of problems for children of different ages, as well as problems at varied levels of difficulty. Third, unlike older tests, the K-ABC measured several distinct aspects of intelligence. Finally, influenced by neuroscience and information processing theory, the K-ABC assessed different types of learning styles.
WAIS (WAIS-IV) and the WISC (WISC-IV) include scores on four dimensions: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, and processing speed. T/F
which test, developed by Wechsler, is the most frequently administered intelligence test for adults?
In addition to assessing fluid and crystallized intelligence, the newest version of the Stanford-Binet assesses quantitative reasoning, visual-spatial processing, and working memory. T/F
refers to the consistency of results. If a test is reliable, a person who takes the same test on two different occasions will obtain very similar scores on both occasions
when questions on a given subtest tend to correlate very highly with other items on the subtest
requires that the tests really measure intelligence, not something else, and that test scores predict real-world outcomes. The validity of a test is more difficult to establish than is its reliability. Although there is a great deal of evidence that the Wechsler and Stanford-Binet tests, among others, do provide valid measures of intelligence, many intelligence experts—notably, Sternberg and Gardner—have argued that they measure only verbal, spatial, and mathematical forms of intelligence. The other forms that Gardner identified—social, emotional, musical, bodily-kinesthetic, practical, and naturalistic—are not measured at all.
that a test measures the concept, or construct, it claims to measure
addresses the question of whether the construct is related positively to real-world outcomes, such as school achievement or job success. IQ tests do predict certain real-world outcomes, the first and foremost being academic performance. IQ scores predict students' grades, school performance, and class rank in high school quite well. That is, after all, what they were meant to predict. For example, preschool scores on two IQ tests taken by children in the Head Start Program accurately predicted the children's academic achievement scores from kindergarten to sixth grade
cultural test bias
the notion that group differences in IQ scores are caused by different cultural and educational backgrounds, not by real differences in intelligence
Just because different groups score differently on a given test does not automatically mean that it is biased or unfair. If the test is equally valid for different groups and they still score differently on it, the test is not biased. A common misperception is to believe that if different groups score differently on a test, then it must be a biased and/or unfair test. Neither of those is necessarily true. T/F
a judgement about how test results are applied to different groups based on values and philosophical inclinations
a test (such as an IQ test) that accurately measures what it is intended to measure is highly...
(formerly known as mental retardation), an individual must show significant limitations in intellectual functioning as well as in everyday adaptive behavior, and these deficits must start before age 18 (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013). Historically, intellectual disability was defined and diagnosed solely on the basis of IQ, with 70 being the most common cutoff score.
There are four levels of intellectual disability, depending on how adaptive the behavior or thinking is: mild, moderate, severe, and profound. A general starting point for mild intellectual disability begins with having an IQ of no more than 70 or 75. T/F
is defined as how well a person adjusts to and copes with everyday life (Hogan, 2007). For example, how well can the person feed or dress himself or herself? Does the individual have the ability to tell time, make change, or read simple words? At a more complex level, one might ask whether he or she can take a bus or follow the news on TV. Most current diagnoses of intellectual disability emphasize adaptive functioning over IQ scores. They therefore measure a person's everyday abilities more than his or her academic performance.
The origins of intellectual disability vary and are many, but there are at least three main causes:
Chromosomal-genetic abnormalities (e.g., Down syndrome and Fragile X syndrome)
Prenatal abnormalities (e.g., fetal alcohol syndrome)
Down Syndrome (Trisomy 21)
a disorder Page 381that results from a condition known as trisomy-21, in which a person has three rather than two number 21 chromosomes, is an example of achromosomal cause.
Fragile X syndrome is a disorder on the X chromosome, resulting in the abnormal development of a gene involved in neural development. People with Fragile X syndrome often have stunted cognitive development and social interactions. T/F
fetal alcohol syndrome is a prenatal cause of intellectual disability, and it occurs when the mother drinks while pregnant (Streissguth et al., 1989). If the pregnant mother is also exposed to other chemicals—for example, lead, manganese, or mercury—that affect brain development or is physically abused, the risk of intellectual disability also increases T/F
familial-cultural intellectual disability
this type is more prevalent among people of low socioeconomic status, tends to occur in more than one family member, and tends to be mild (Kerig & Wenar, 2006; Mash & Wolf, 2010). Genetics play no role in this form of intellectual disability.
Giftedness lies at the high end of the intelligence spectrum. Starting in about the third grade in the United States, students who do very well in school and well on standardized tests of intelligence are sometimes placed in "gifted" programs. In most schools, children are admitted to such a program if they score 130-140 or above on a standardized IQ test, such as the WISC or Stanford-Binet.
is a young person who is extremely gifted and precocious in one area, such as math, music, art, or chess, and is at least average in intelligence
a very rare condition characterized by serious mental handicaps and isolated areas of ability or remarkable giftedness
Savant syndrome occurs most often in five major areas of talent: music (usually piano), art, math, calendar calculations, and spatial/mechanical skills (Treffert, 2006). A relatively common form is seen in individuals who can immediately calculate the day of the week on which a particular date in history fell. For example, if asked to name the day of the week for June 15, 1899, they would correctly answer "Thursday." T/F
Psychologists do not fully understand savant syndrome, but what is clear is that it involves skills and abilities that cannot be learned or taught. Moreover, it almost always exists in someone with some sort of brain abnormality, which suggests that the non-learned ability might be associated with unusual brain structure or function. T/F
The absence of a corpus callosum means that information processed in one of the brain's hemispheres cannot be communicated to the other hemisphere. T/F
there are a number of major differences between the sexes in cognitive ability. T/F
__________ is the broad term that describes the capacity to understand the world and think rationally
_______-intelligence enables one to think through a problem never confronted before and solve. it by applying pattern recognition and abstract reasoning.
the specific type of intelligence that represents learned skills and strategies is called....
creativity is thought or behavior that is both....
novel-original and useful-adaptive
convergent thinking problems
have known solutions, which can be reached by narrowing down a set of possible answers. Intelligence tests and college entrance exams include convergent problems. Figuring out how to operate a new coffeemaker is a convergent problem
divergent thinking problems
problems that have no known solutions and require novel solutions. To solve them, we must break away from our normal problem-solving strategies and make unusual associations to arrive at novel ways of thinking about a problem. Imagine that your new dormmate snores so loudly you can't sleep. How would you solve this problem?
Psychologists describe three kinds of strategies people use to solve different kinds of problems: algorithms, insight, and thinking outside the box. T/F
are step-by-step formulas or procedures for solving problems.
Eureka insight (insight solution)
a sudden solution that comes to mind in a flash
thinking outside the box
an approach to problem solving that requires breaking free of self-imposed conceptual constraints and thinking about a problem differently in order to solve it
the inability to break out of a particular mind-set in order to think about a problem from a fresh perspective. Fixation prevents many people from seeing possible solutions to the match problem. (One of the biggest blocks to solving a problem)
a tendency to continue to use problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past, even if better solutions are available
obstacle to successful problem solving is our tendency to be blind to unusual uses of common, everyday things or procedures
how many basic strategies are there to solve different types of problems
3, algorithms, insight, and thinking outside the box
_________ thinking problems require crystalized intelligence whereas _________ thinking problems require fluid intelligence.
are college entrance tests convergent or divergent?
convergent, they have fixed answers
jumble of incoherent speech as sometimes heard in schizophrenia
thought or behavior that is both novel (original) and meaningful. The meaningful criterion requires that someone at some time sees value and usefulness in the creative accomplishment.
what are the four stages Graham Wallas identified of creative problem solving?
preparation, incubation, insight, and elaboration-verification. The first stage, preparation, involves discovering and defining the problem and then attempting to solve it. This leads to the second stage, incubation, or putting the problem aside for a while and working on something else. The third stage, insight, is a Eureka moment when the solution comes immediately to mind. The fourth, and final, stage of creative problem solving is elaboration-verification. The solution, even if it has the feel of certainty, still needs to be confirmed.
Creative ideas activate frontal and parietal lobe regions of the brain. T/F
Insights occur in the right hemisphere rather than the left. T/F
Creative people solving creative problems show more integrated and balanced activity between their right and left frontal lobes. T/F
default mode network
it is a region of the frontal and parietal lobes that is active when a person is not really engaged in any particular behavior or focused attention—that is, their brain is on "default mode"
One kind of problem that has been used in creativity/brain research is a remote association word problem (Mednick & Mednick, 1967). Remote association problems display three words at one time to the participant, who must then come up with a single word that could be used with all three of the words. T/F
Visual imagery occurs when we see a solution in our "mind's eye." Many scientists, artists, and writers solve problems by using creative mental images T/F
the ability to produce many ideas
J. P. Guilford developed the Alternate Uses test to measure creativity. In this test, participants are given a common object, such as a brick or a pencil, and are asked to write down all the possible uses they can think of for the object within a limited amount of time. An ideationally fluent person can list many alternate uses for the object within a short period. T/F
flexibility of thought
the ability to come up with many different categories of ideas and think of other responses besides the obvious one
freshness; novelty; inventiveness
when researchers give a participant three words like sauce, pine, and crab, and ask the participant for one word or idea that unites the three , the researcher is using a _________ _________ word problem
patients with damage to the _______ are less able to solve problems requiring insight
frontal region of the right hemisphere
______ ______ is when you cannot see a stimulus, but instead imagine it by picturing. it in your "minds eye"
what is the characteristic of creative thought that involves the ability to produce many ideas called?
if a person is asked to come up with uses of a brick and all the responses they can come up with have to do with building something , the person is not displaying...
flexibility of thought
what is the point where a relationship goes from significant to not significant called?
which test measures creativity?
the alternate uses test
insight into problems occurred much more frequently when the problem was presented in the....
left visual field and processed in the right hemisphere
the ability to produce many ideas, which is central to creative thought
the intelligence test developed by Lewis Terman is known as the
what best describes Raymond cattells theory of intelligence?
intelligence comprises two parts: fluid and crystalline
in addition to assessing fluid and crystalized intelligence, what does the newest version of the Stanford-Binet test asses?
what's the difference between western and asian cultures aspects of intelligence?
wester cultures emphasize cognitive skills while asian cultures stress on humility
in Carrolls classification, sequential reasoning for fluid intelligence, reading, and spelling are a part of...
a person is usually described as gifted if they have an IQ in the range of...
ravens progressive test is commonly used measure for...
what did Takeuchi and colleagues find in their research that sought to measure creativity and neural connectivity?
they found a direct and positive relationship between the subjects creativity scores and their neural connectivity in the frontal lobe
the ability to generate original ideas or develop a novel solution to problems is known as..
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