Explain preload and afterload and identify nursing interventions to decrease preload
Terms in this set (3)
the volume of blood in the ventricles at the end of diastole, before the next contraction. Preload determines the amount of stretch placed on myocardial fibers.
the peripheral resistance against which the left ventricle must pump. afterload is affected by the size of the ventricle, wall tension, and arterial blood pressure.
nursing interventions to decrease preload
*perform a comprehensive assessment of peripheral circulation (e.g. check peripheral pulses, edema, capillary refill, color, amd temperature of extremity) to determine circulatory status.
Note signs and symptoms of decreased cardian output (e.g. chest pain, S3, s4, jugular venous distention) to detect changes in status
Monitor fluid balance (e.g. I/O and daily weight) to evaluate renal perfusion
Continuously monitor cardiac rhythm to detect dysrhythmias
monitor for dyspnea, fatigue, tachypnea, and orthopnea, to identify involvement of respiratory system.
Instruct patient caregivers on activity restrictions and progression to allay fears and anxiety
establish a supportive relationship with the patient and caregivers to promote adherence to the treatment plan.
inform the patient of the purpose for and benefits of the prescribed activity and exercise.