Milady Standard Esthetics: Chapter 2 - Anatomy & Physiology

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How much blood does the human body contain?
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What are the structures composed of specialized tissues and performing specific functions?OrgansWhy does the parathyroid gland regulate blood calcium and phosphorus levels?So the nervous and muscular system can function properlyThe pituitary gland is the most complex organ of the _____________________ system.EndocrineWhat organ in the endocrine system secretes enzyme-producing cells that are responsible for digesting carbohydrates, proteins, and fats?PancreasWhat are the secretions that the endocrine glands release directly into the bloodstream and that influence the welfare of the entire body?HormonesWhat is the primary function of the respiratory system?BreathingWhat is the primary function of the lymphatic/immune system?Protecting the body from diseaseWhat is a primary function of the skeletal system?Providing a physical foundation of the bodyWhat is the primary function of the circulatory system?Moving blood through the bodyWhat is covered, shaped, and supported by the muscular system?Skeletal tissueWhat body system is responsible for changing food into nutrients and waste?Digestive systemWhat is the primary function of the excretory system?Purifying the body by elimination of waste matterWhat is the primary function of the reproductive system?Perpetuating the human raceWhat is the body system that controls and coordinates all other body systems?Nervous systemWhat is the connection between two or more bones of the skeleton?JointWhat body system serves as a protective covering for the body?Integumentary systemConnective, epithelial, muscle, and nerve are types of what found in the body?TissueWhat are valves?Structures that close a passage or permit flow in one direction onlyWhat bone forms the back of the skull above the nape?OccipitalHow many identical daughter cells are formed when a cell divides during mitosis?2What body system affects the growth, development, sexual activities, and health of the body?Endocrine systemWhere in the body does the spinal cord originate?BrainWhat are glands?Specialized organs that remove and convert elements from the bloodWhat is the importance of lymph?To disperse white blood cells and cell nutrientsWhat binds the tissues of the body together?Connective tissueWhat carries messages to and from the brain and controls and coordinates all body functions?Nerve tissueWhat organ circulates the blood?HeartWhat do the kidneys do?Excrete water and waste productsAs one of the major body organs the brain has the function of __________________.Controlling the bodyWhat is defecation?Eliminating waste from the bodyWhich body system controls and coordinates all bodily functions?Nervous systemWhich body system regulates temperature and produces vitamin D?Immune/lymphatic systemWhich body system illuminates carbon dioxide as a waste product?Respiratory systemThe kidneys and bladder are part of the system.Excretory systemWhich type of muscle will esthetician's work with?SkeletalWhich part of the muscle flexes but remain stationary?OriginWhat muscle draws the scalp backward?OccipitalisWhich muscle causes wrinkles in the forehead?FrontalisThis muscle closes the eyes.Orbicularis oculiWhich thin, flat muscle between the upper and lower jaws compresses the cheeks and expels air between the lips?BuccinatorThis muscle pulls down the corners of the mouth.TriangularisIf you want to pucker up, you need to use the_________________ muscle.Orbicularis orisYou can use this muscle to smile, but not grin.Levator anguli orisThis muscle is used to grin.RisoriusThese muscles are used for chewing.Masseter and temporalisWhat are the three muscles of the ear called?Auricularis musclesWhen you turn your head, you are using the____________________ muscle.SternocleidomastoidWhich large, flat, triangular muscle covers the lower back?Latissimus dorsiWhen you show someone your muscles on your arm, you are most likely showing them your_______________.BicepsWhich movement separates the fingers?AbductionWhen you bend forward, which muscle movement are you using?FlexionThis movement is used to rotate the muscles.SupinationHow does massage help the muscle of the hand?Maintains pliabilityWhy is it important as an esthetician to know about the muscles of the forearm?To maintain a good body mechanicsWhy should estheticians have a thorough understanding of anatomy and physiology?Estheticians must understand the effect that services will have on tissues, organs, and body systems.Cells are made up of a colorless, jellylike substance called ______________ in which food elements such as protein, fats, carbohydrates, mineral salts and water are present.ProtoplasmThe principal parts of the cell include the protoplasm,_______________________.Cell membrane, nucleus and mitochondriaFound in the center of the cell, the ___________________ plays an important role in cell reproduction.NucleusWhat is the study of structures of the human body and substances these structures are made of?AnatomyWhat is the study of the functions and activities performed by the body structures?PhysiologyThis movement is used to when muscles turn inward.PronationWhich movement draws the fingers together?AdductionThis movement is used when muscles straighten.ExtensionWhat is the study of structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system?NeurologyThe ____________ connects the spinal cord to the brain.Brain stemThe nervous system is divided into ______ main subdivisions.3Which nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves?Central Nervous System (CNS)Which nervous system connects the peripheral parts of the body to the central nervous system?Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)Which nervous system controls the involuntary muscles?Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)Estheticians are primarily concerned with nerves ______, ________, and _________.5, 7, 11There are _____ pairs of cranial nerves arising from the base of the brain and the brain stem.12This nerve reacts to a stimulus that involves movement of an impulse from a sensory receptor along the sensory nerve to the spinal cord and a responsive impulse back along a motor neuron to a muscle, causing a reaction.ReflexThis nerve affects the skin of the forehead, upper eyelids, and interior portion of the scalp.Ophthalmic nerveThis nerve affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.Mandibular nerveThis nerve affects the upper part of the face.Maxillary nerveWhat is the largest cranial nerve?The fifth aka trifacial or trigeminal nerveThis nerve affects the external ear and skin above the temple, up to the top of the skull.Auriculotemporal nerveThis nerve affects the skin of the lower eyelid, side of the nose, upper lip and mouth.Infraorbital nerveThis nerve affects the membrane and skin of the nose.Infratrochlear nerveThis nerve affects the skin of the lower lip and chin.Mental nerveThis nerve affects the point and lower side of the nose.Nasal nerveThis nerve affects the skin of the forehead, scalp, eyebrow, and upper eyelid.Supraorbital nerveThis nerve affects the muscles of the upper part of the cheek.Zygomatic nerveThis nerve affects the muscles of the mouth.Buccal nerveThese nerves affect the side of the neck and the platysma muscle.Cervical nervesThis nerve affects the muscles of the chin and lower lip.Mandibular nerveThis nerve affects the muscles behind the ear at the base of the skull.Posterior auricular nerve