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A preview of the Cell. The Chemistry of the Cell. And Proteins


Basic unit of biology and reproduction

Robert Hooke

scientist. built first microscope. called cells cellula which means "little room" in Latin.

antonie van leeuwenhoek

dutch shopkeeper. produced lenses that could magnify 300x their size. first to look at living cells


the ability to see fine details of structure.

robert brown

enlisht botanist. found the nucleus


the latin word for nucleus

matthias schleiden

conclusion that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant always arises from a single cell.

theodor schwann

reported the same as schleiden but for animal cells

cell theory

by schwann in 1839
1. all organisms consist of one or more cells.
2. the cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms
3. all cells arise only from preexisting cells

modern cell biology

cytology, biochemistry, and genetics


study of cellular structure.


study of our understanding of cellular funtion.
techniques include: ultracentrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry


monk and biologist: Gregor Mendel by the pea plants
"hereditary factors"- genes


All the genetic material in an organism


production of genetically identical organisms


greek word meaning "hollow vessel"

light microscope

allowed cytologists to identify membrane bounded structures such as the nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts


little organs


an instrument for slicing very thin sections of biological samples

limit of resolution

refers to how far apart adjacent objects must be in order to be distinguished as seperate entities. the smaller this is the greater the resolving power of the microscope.

flourescene microscopy

powerful method that enables researchers to detect specific proteins, DNA sequences or particular molecules by binging them to a fluorestently anitbody


green fluorescent protein from the jelllyfish Aequorea victoria

confocal scanning

uses a laser beam to illuminate just one plane of the specimen at a time

digital video microscopy

uses video cameras to collect digital images for computer storage

electron microscope

in germany in 1932 then widespread in 1950's
uses a beam of electrons that is deflected and focused by an electromagnetic field
limit of resolution is better than of light microscope

biochemistry data

Wohler- urea could be synthesized from ammonium cyanate
Louis Pasteur- living organisms to specific processes


zyme. greek word meaning yeast

calvin cycle

the most common pathway for photosynthetic carbon metabolism.


separating and isolating subcellular structures and macromolecules based on their size, shape and/or density. process called subcellular fractionation.


a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency


refers to several related techniques that use an electrical field to separate molecules based on their mobility

mass spectrometry

commonly used to determine the size and composition of individual proteins


merges computer science and biology as a means of making sense of sequence data


a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations


what theory states that the concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation

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