How can we help?

You can also find more resources in our Help Center.

35 terms

Cell Biology-Exam 1

A preview of the Cell. The Chemistry of the Cell. And Proteins
STUDY
PLAY
Cell
Basic unit of biology and reproduction
Robert Hooke
scientist. built first microscope. called cells cellula which means "little room" in Latin.
antonie van leeuwenhoek
dutch shopkeeper. produced lenses that could magnify 300x their size. first to look at living cells
resolution
the ability to see fine details of structure.
robert brown
enlisht botanist. found the nucleus
kernel
the latin word for nucleus
matthias schleiden
conclusion that all plant tissues are composed of cells and that an embryonic plant always arises from a single cell.
theodor schwann
reported the same as schleiden but for animal cells
cell theory
by schwann in 1839
1. all organisms consist of one or more cells.
2. the cell is the basic unit of structure for all organisms
3. all cells arise only from preexisting cells
modern cell biology
cytology, biochemistry, and genetics
cytology
study of cellular structure.
biochemistry
study of our understanding of cellular funtion.
techniques include: ultracentrifugation, chromatography, electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry
genetics
monk and biologist: Gregor Mendel by the pea plants
"hereditary factors"- genes
genomes
All the genetic material in an organism
cloning
production of genetically identical organisms
cytos
greek word meaning "hollow vessel"
light microscope
allowed cytologists to identify membrane bounded structures such as the nuclei, mitochondria and chloroplasts
organelles
little organs
microtome
an instrument for slicing very thin sections of biological samples
limit of resolution
refers to how far apart adjacent objects must be in order to be distinguished as seperate entities. the smaller this is the greater the resolving power of the microscope.
flourescene microscopy
powerful method that enables researchers to detect specific proteins, DNA sequences or particular molecules by binging them to a fluorestently anitbody
GFP
green fluorescent protein from the jelllyfish Aequorea victoria
confocal scanning
uses a laser beam to illuminate just one plane of the specimen at a time
digital video microscopy
uses video cameras to collect digital images for computer storage
electron microscope
in germany in 1932 then widespread in 1950's
uses a beam of electrons that is deflected and focused by an electromagnetic field
limit of resolution is better than of light microscope
biochemistry data
Wohler- urea could be synthesized from ammonium cyanate
Louis Pasteur- living organisms to specific processes
enzymes
zyme. greek word meaning yeast
calvin cycle
the most common pathway for photosynthetic carbon metabolism.
centrifugation
separating and isolating subcellular structures and macromolecules based on their size, shape and/or density. process called subcellular fractionation.
Chromatography
a process used for separating mixtures by virtue of differences in absorbency
electrophoresis
refers to several related techniques that use an electrical field to separate molecules based on their mobility
mass spectrometry
commonly used to determine the size and composition of individual proteins
bioinformatics
merges computer science and biology as a means of making sense of sequence data
hypothesis
a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations
chemiosmotic
what theory states that the concentration differences in H+ and electric gradients across a membrane are responsible for ATP formation