Electrical Principles and Technologies Vocabulary (Science 9)
Science - Unit: Electrical Principles and Technologies vocabulary + definition.
Terms in this set (80)
Current that flows back and forth 60 times per second; this is the current used in homes.
Meter used to measure electrical current in amperes.
The unit of electrical current.
Rotating shaft and coil in a motor or generator.
Set of cells connected together.
Number having two as its base (instead of 10) and so having only ones and zeroes.
Organic matter, such as food or agricultural waste, used as an energy source.
Mechanism that makes electrical contact with the moving commutator in a motor.
Concentration of like charges in specific areas of a neutral object, caused by the approach of a charged object; for example, a negatively charged object brought close to a wall repels the electrons in the wall, leaving the area of the wall closest to the object positively charged.
Energy stored in chemicals and released when chemicals react; a form of potential or stored energy.
Complete path that charged particles flow through.
Special wire that heats up and turns off switch when excess current flows through an electrical circuit.
Use of waste energy from a process for another purpose, such as heating or generating electricity.
Split ring in a motor that breaks the flow of electricity for a moment and then reverses the connection of the coil.
A material that electric charge can move through easily.
Current that flows in only one direction.
Cell that has its electrolyte in the form of a paste, usually in a sealed case; the type of cell commonly used in portable devices such as flashlights.
Ratio of the useful energy output to the total energy input in a device or system; usually given as a percent.
Steady flow of charged particles.
Sudden transfer of electrical charge from one object to another, indicated by a spark.
Energy of charged particles; transferred when electrons travel from place to place.
Package of chemicals designed to produce small amounts of electricity; produces electricity from chemical reactions.
Study of chemical reactions involving electricity.
Conductor through which electric current enters or leaves a device or material.
Decomposition of a substance by an electric current .
Liquid or paste that conducts electricity because it contains ions.
Coil of insulated wire (usually wrapped around a soft iron core) that becomes a magnet when current flows through it.
Generation of electric current in a conductor by a changing magnetic field.
Invisible negatively charged particle that orbits the nucleus of an atom.
Use of electricity to coat a thin layer of metal onto an object.
Ability to do work.
Fine airborne ash produced by burning coal or other solid fuels.
Fuel formed from dead plants and animals; coal, oil, and natural gas.
Primary cell that generates electricity directly from a chemical reaction with a fuel.
Thin piece of metal that melts to break an electrical circuit when excess current flow occurs.
Device for detecting and measuring small electrical currents.
Energy derived from the internal heat of Earth.
Substance that strongly resists the flow of electricity.
Circuit of inseparable, often microscopic, components formed on the surface of a single piece or chip of semiconductor crystal, usually silicon.
Atom that has become electrically charged because it has lost or gained electrons; a positive ion is an atom that has lost one or more electrons; a negative ion is an atom that has gained one or more electrons.
Commonly used unit of electrical energy, equal to a power consumption of 1000 W for one hour.
Law of conservation of energy
Fundamental principle that energy cannot be created or destroyed.
Device in a circuit that converts electrical energy to another form of energy (e.g., a light bulb).
Circuit made up of miniaturized components, especially an integrated circuit.
Instrument used to measure small voltages.
Meter that can measure voltage, current, or resistance in a circuit.
(in electricity) description of an object that has equal amounts of positive and negative charges.
A resource, such as coal or natural gas, that cannot be replenished.
Splitting of atoms, which transforms them into lighter elements and releases large amounts of energy.
Unit of resistance.
Law stating that, as long as the temperature remains constant, the resistance of a conductor remains constant, and the current is directly proportional to the voltage applied; R = V/I or I = V/R or V = IR.
Circuit in which the current can flow in two or more paths.
A resistor that becomes more conductive when exposed to light.
Change in the potential energy of electric charge compared to its potential energy at a reference point, such as the ground; voltage.
Rate at which a device converts energy.
Cell that produces electricity by means of a chemical reaction that cannot be reversed.
Positively charged particle in the nucleus of an atom.
Cell that produces electricity by means of a chemical reaction that can be reversed by using an external source to run electricity back through the cell.
Resource such as water or wind energy that is continually replenished and therefore can be used indefinitely.
Measure of how difficult it is for electrons to flow through a substance; unit of measure is the ohm.
Device having resistance to the passage of electrical current, often used to control current in a circuit.
Continuously variable resistor used to regulate electrical current.
Schematic or schematic diagram
Diagram using standardized symbols to show the components and connections in a circuit.
Circuit in which there is only a single pathway for the current so the same current passes through all the components.
Accidental low-resistance connection between two points in a circuit, often causing excess current to flow.
A stationary electric charge.
Perfect conductor; substance with no resistance to electron flow.
Use of resources at a rate that can be maintained indefinitely without depleting the resources or harming the environment.
Device consisting of two wires of different metals joined such that a voltage is produced between the ends in proportion to the difference in their temperatures.
Device that changes electricity at one voltage into electricity at a different voltage; a step-up transformer increases the voltage; a step-down transformer decreases the voltage.
Device usually with three layers arranged such that a small voltage through the middle layer controls a current between the outer layers, allowing the device to act as a switch or amplifier.
Machine that uses the flow of a fluid such as steam, water, or air to rotate a shaft.
Resistor whose resistance can be changed by adjusting the portion of the resistor the current travels through.
The unit of voltage.
A measure of how much electrical energy a charged particle carries.
Voltage across a resistor or other device in a circuit.
Instrument for measuring potential difference in volts.
Unit of power, equal to one joule per second.
Electrochemical primary cell having a liquid electrolyte.