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Psyo 270 Midterm #2
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Explain the purpose of null hypothesis testing, including the role of sampling error
→ Null Hypothesis Testing: Formal approach to deciding whether a statistical relationship in a sample reflects a real relationship in the population or is just due to chance
**Purpose is simply to help researchers decide between two interpretations
→ Sampling Error: Random variable in a statistic from sample to sample
Describe the basic logic of null hypothesis testing
→ Logic of null hypothesis involved assuming that the null hypothesis is true, finding how likely the sample result would be if this assumption were correct and then making a decision
→ IF the sample would be unlikely if the null hypothesis were true, then it is rejected in favour of the alternative hypothesis
→ IF is unlikely then the null hypothesis is retained
Describe the role of relationship strength and sample size in determining statistical significance
→ The stronger the relationship and the larger the sample, the less likely the result would equal a true null hypothesis
Conduct and interpret one-sample, dependent-samples, and independent-samples t-tests.
→ One-Sample t-Test: Used for comparing one sample mean with a hypothetical population mean of interest
→ Dependent Samples t-Test: Used to compare two means in within-subject design
→ Independent Sample t-Test: Used to compare two means in a between-subject design
Interpret the results of one-way, repeated measures, and factorial ANOVAs
→ One-way: Null hypothesis test that is used for between-between subject design with a single independent variable
→ Repeated Measures: The dependent variable is measured multiple times for each participant, allowing a more refined measure of MSw
→ Factorial: Used when more than one independent variable is included in a factorial design
→ Produces an F ratio and a p-value for each main effect and for each interaction
Conduct and interpret null hypothesis tests of Pearson's r
→ Pearson's r: Used to compare the strength of correlation between quantitative variables (-1.00 → +1.00)
→ Used to compare a sample value of Pearson's r with a hypothetical population value of 0
Define Type I and Type II errors, explain why they occur, and identify some steps that can be taken to minimize their likelihood.
→ Type 1: Rejecting the null when it is true, occurs b/c there is no relationship between the population...sampling error alone produces an extreme result
→ Type 2: Retaining the null when it is false, occurs b/c research design lacks adequate statistical power to detect the relationship (ie. small sample size)
→ SOLUTION: Large sample size
Define statistical power
→ Statistical Power: Probability of rejecting the null hypothesis given the sample size and expected relationship strength
What is Bayesian Statistics?
→ An approach in which researchers specifies the probability that the null hypothesis and any important alternative hypotheses are true before conducting the study and then update the probabilities based on the data
List some criticisms of conventional null hypothesis testing, along with some ways of dealing with these criticisms
→ It is seen as illogical and uninformative, BUT important purpose especially when used with effect size measures, confidence intervals, etc.
Explain why researchers often include multiple dependent variables in their studies
→ Multiple Dependent Variables: When researchers examine the relationship between a single independent variable and more than one dependent variable
→ They want to know how an independent variable affects several distinct dependent variables
Explain what a manipulation check is and when it would be included in an experiment
→ Manipulation Check: Measure of the independent variable
→ Done at the end of a procedure to be sure that the effect of the manipulation lasted throughout the entire procedure and to avoid attention to the manipulation
→ Primary reason is to that this easily allows them to answer more research questions with minimal additional efforts
Explain why researchers often include multiple independent variables in their studies
→ Independent variable is a construct that is manipulated indirectly
What is a factor?
→ Factor: Each level of one independent variable
Define factorial design and types
→ Factorial Design: An approach to include multiple independent variables in an experiment where each level of one independent variable is combined with each level of the others to produce all possible combinations
→ Between-Subject FD: All of the independent variables are manipulated between subjects
→ Within-Subject FD: All of the independent variables are manipulated within subjects
→ Mixed FD: When one independent variable is manipulated between subjects and another is manipulated within subjects
What are non manipulated Independent Variables?
→ In a factorial design, the researcher measures an independent variable but does not manipulate it
Distinguish between main effects and interactions, and recognize and give examples of each
→ Main Effects: Statistical relationship between one independent variable and a dependent variable- averaging across the levels of the other independent variable
→ Interaction Effect: The effect of one independent variable depends on the level of another
→ There is an interaction between two independent variables when the effect of one depends on the level of the other
Explain some reasons that researchers use complex correlational designs
→ Use complex correlation to explore relationships among several variables in the same study
→ Explore possible causal relationships among variables using techniques such as multiple regression
What is Multiple Regression?
→ Multiple Regression: Measuring several independent variables, all of which are possible causes
What is Statistical Control?
→ The researchers measure potential third variables and included them in the statistical analysis
What are the Ethical Principles
→ Respect for Persons
→ Concern for Welfare
→ Justice
What is the Nuremberg Code
→ set of 10 principles established in 1947 in response to Nazi "medical research" in concentration camps; created standard against which the unethical actions of Nazi physicians were contrasted
Declaration of Helsinki?
→ created by World Medical Council in 1964
→ Added concept of written protocol (researchers should write down a research plan that is then reviewed by an institutional review board)
What is the Belmont Report?
→ Created in 1978 in the United States; influenced by the revelation of the Tuskegee syphilis study and incorporated concept of justice systematically
What is the Tri-Council Policy Statement?
→ Code of ethics followed by Canadian institutions; published in 1998 (first edition); 2010 (TCPS 2)
What is Informed Consent?
→ Prior to participation, those participants potentially involved are informed of the details of the procedure, risks and benefits, their right to decline to participate, consequences, and legal confidentiality
Explain Deception
→ Misinforming research participants about the purpose of the research
→ Ie. Using confederates, phony equipment, false feedback, not sharing true purpose of exp
What is Debriefing
→ Debriefing: Process of informing participants (after the study) of the purpose of the study, revealing deception, or correct misconceptions about the study's purpose or procedure
Define the terms phenomenon and theory and distinguish clearly between them.
→ Phenomenon: General result that has been observed reliably in systematic empirical research
→ Theory: Coherent explanation or interpretation of one or more phenomena
Explain the purposes of scientific theories
→ Scientific Theories: Meant to provide accurate explanations or interpretations of phenomena, BUT can be useful without being entirely accurate
→ Organize phenomena, allow people to predict what will happen in new situations, and help generate new research
Define measurement and give several examples of measurement in psychology
→ Measurement: Is the assignment of scores to individuals so that the scores represent some characteristics of the individuals
→ Psychometrics: Psychological measurements
Explain what a psychological construct
→ Psychological Construct: Personality traits, emotional states, attitudes, and abilities
Distinguish conceptual from operational definitions, give examples of each, and create simple operational definitions
→ Conceptual Definition: A definition of a psychological construct that describes the behaviour and internal processes of that construct and how it relates to other variables
→ Operational Definition: Definition of a variable in terms of precisely how it is to be measured
→ Self-Reported Measures: Participant reports on their own thoughts, feelings, actions
→ Behavioural Measures: Aspects of participants behaviour is observed and recorded
→ Physiological Measures: Involves recording any of a wide variety of psychological
processes, including heart rate and blood pressure, galvanic skin response, hormone levels, and electrical activity and blood flow in the brain
Distinguish the four levels of measurement, give examples of each, and explain why this distinction is important
→ Nominal: Measures used for categorical variables and involved assigning scores that are category labels
→ Ordinal: Measurement involving assigning scores so that they represent the rank order of the individual
→ Interval: Measurement involving assigning scores using numerical scales in which intervals have the same interpretation throughout
→ Ratio: Measurement involves assigning scores in such a way that there is a true zero point that represents the complete absence of the quantity
Define reliability, including the different types and how they are assessed
→ Reliability: Refers to the consistency of a measure
→ Overtime/Test-retest Reliability
→ Across Item/Internal Consistency
→ Across Different Research/Inter-rater Reliability
Define validity, including the different types and how they are assessed
→ Validity: The extent to which the scores from a measure represent the variable they are intended to
→ Face: Extent to which the measurement method appears "on its face' to measure the construct of interest
→ Content: Extent to which a measure "covers" the construct of interest
→ Criterion: Extend to which people score on a measure is correlated with other variables (known as criteria) that one would expect them to be correlated with
→ Concurrent: When criteria measured at the same time as the construct
→ Predictive: When criteria are measured at some point in the future (after the construct has been measured)
→ Convergent: Criteria can also include other measures of the same construct
→ Discriminant: The extent to which scores on a measure are not correlated with measures of variables that are conceptually distinct
What is the difference between Random Sample vs Random Assignment?
→ A random sample is when you use a method of selecting
→ Random assignment is when you decide who sees which condition in an experiment using a random process
→ Use when causality but not generalizability is important
What is Theoretical Approach?
→ Theories in psychology are constructed from a variety of theoretical ideas
What are the types of theories?
→ Functional: Explain psychological phenomena in terms of their function or purpose
→ Mechanistic: Focus on specific variables, structures, and processes, and how they interact to produce the phenomena
→ Stage: Specify a series of stages that people pass through as they develop or adapt to their environment
What is the Hypothetico Deductive Method?
→ Primary way that scientific researchers use theories ...start with set of phenomena and either constructs a theory of explain or interpret them or choose an existing theory to work with
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