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64 terms

Pneumonia

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What causes pnuemonia
inflammatory process that primarily affects the has exchange area of the lung. In response to the inflammation fluid and RBCs from adjacent pulmonary capillaries pour into the alveoli
surface phagocytosis
ploymorphonuclear leukocytes move into the infected area to engulf and kill invading bacteria on the alveolar walls
consolidated or consolidation
when the alveoli become filled with fluid
The major pathologic or structural changes associated with pneumonia are
1. inflammation of the alveoli
2. alveolar consolidation
3. atelectasis
Pneumonia involving an entire lobe of the lung is called
lobar pnuemonia
When both lungs are involved, the condition is called
double pneumonia
early signs of a baterial infection
chills
shaking
high fever
w3ating
cheswt pain
yellow or green sputm
cough
bacterial pneumonia is often confined to how many lungs
lobar pnuemonia
What are the three classification of bacterial infections
1. gram-positive organisms
2. gram-negative organisms
3. anaerobic organisms
What are the two gram positive organisms
1. streptococcal pneumonia
2. Staphylococcal pneumonia
What are the two types of staphylococcal pneumonia
1. staphylococcus aureus (responsible for most staph infection in humans
2. staphylococcus albus and staphylococcus epidermidis (normal skin flora)
The major gram negative organisms responsible for pneumonia are
rod-shaped microorganisms called bacilli
H. influenzae is common in causing what in chillren
epiglottitis
k. pneumoniae organism is long associated with what type of pneumonia. Lobar or double
Lobar
The mortality of patients with K. pneumoniae is quite high because of what
septicemia
What is the leading cause of hospital acquired pneumonia?
P aeruginosa
What is a naturla inhabitant of the human pharynx
M. catarrhalis
E. coli is a normal inhabitant of the
intestinal tract
What is the is the most common cause of mild pneumonia
M. pneumoniae
common symptom of mycoplasma pneumonia is
cough, that tends to come in violent attacks, producing only a small amount of white mucus
M. pneumoniae is smaller than ______ but larger than ________.
bacteria viruses
atypical organisms
1. M. pneumoniae
2. legion pneumophila
3, chlamydia psittaci
4. chalmydia pneumoniae
gram negative organisms
1. Haemophilus influenzae
2. klebsiella pneumoniae
3. psuidomonas aerugiosa
4. m. catarrhalis
5. e coli
6. serratia pecies
7. enterobacter species
chlamydia psittaci
found in feces of a variety of birds
legionalla pneumophila is found in
standing water large air conditioning systems and water tanks
Major anaerobic organisms associated with pneumonia are
peptostreptococcus species
_______________ _______________ ___________ ____________ _______________ __________________ ____________are the major causes of anaerobic lung infections
aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions and gastric fluids
predisposing risk factors of aspiration include a
decreased level of consciousness, impaired swallowing, poor dental hygiene and gastrointestinal abnormalities
most viruses attack the
upper airways
early symptoms of a viral infection are
a dry nonproductive cough, headache, fever, muscle pain, and fatigue
approximately ___% of acute upper respiratory tract infections and ___% of lower respiratory tract infectino s are caused by viruses
90 and 50
Common viruses that cause pneumonia
1. influenza virus
2. respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
3. parainfluenza virus
4. adenoviruses
5. Severe acute repiratory syndrome (SARS)
Friedlander's Bacillus is better known as
k. pneumoniae
Bacillus pyocyaneus is better known as
p. aeruginosa
What type of influenza virus are the most common causes of viral respiratory tract infections?
a and b
Respiratory syncytial virus is a member of what group
paramxovirus group. With parainfluenza, mumps, and rubella
When is RSV most commonly seen
in children less than 12 months and adults with underlying heart or pulmonary disease
What are the five types of parainfluenza viruses
1
2
3
4a
4b
Type one parainfluenza is a
croup type virus
type 2 and 3 parainfluenza is
associated with severe infections
2 is infants and 3 is all ages
2 is fall and 3 is spring
How many adenovirus subgroups are there
30
Which serotypes cause viral infections and pnuemonia. and which one kills kids
4,7,14,21

7 kills kids
What is the cause of SARS
coronavirus
Aspiration of astric fluid with a pH of ___ or less causes a serious and often fatal form of pneumonia
2.5
Mendelson's syndrome
aspiration pneumonitis in pregnant women
What are the three types of aspiration pneumonia
1. toxic injury to the lung
2. obstruction
3. infections
If the aspirte's pH is above _____ the initial injury is rapidly reversible
5.9
Normal swallowing mechanics has four phases as follows
1. oral preparatory
2. oral
3. pharyngeal
4. esophageal
silent aspiration
is defined as aspiration that does not evoke clinically observable adverse symptoms
Lipoid Pneumonitis
aspiration of mineral oil
P. carinii is found in what type of patients
AIDS
Lung is the primary site for
fungal infections
community acquired pneumonia (CAP)
defined as a lower respiratory tract infection that is acquired outside of the hospital or during the first 48 hours
Most common cause of CAP
streptococcus
Hospital acquired pneumonia
pneumonia that develops 48 hours after admission to the hospital
ventilator acquied pneumonia
pneumonia developed 48-72 hours after intubation
nursing home acquired pnuemonia
infectino that develops in a long term care facility
vital signs
increased

RR, HR, BP
PFT findings in pneumonia
everything is decreased except for FEV1/FVC ratio which is increased
Lung volume and cpapcity findings
everything decreased except RV/TLC ratio which is normal
during mild to moderate stages what does the blood gas look like
acute respiratory alkalosis
during severe stages what does the blood has look like
acute respiratory acidosis
what deoes the chest radiograph look like
increased density (from consolidation and atelectasis)
air bronchograms
pleural effusions
Fluid samples may be examined for the following
1.color
2. odor
3. RBC count
4. protein
5. glucose
6. LDH
7. Amylase
8. pH
9. Wright's Gram and acid fast bacillus stains
10. cultures
11. cytology