Study sets, textbooks, questions
Upgrade to remove ads
AAS Second Exam
Terms in this set (32)
Describe the development of racial awareness and racial identity in African American children and adolescents
age 3; children recognize some individuals are similar in skin color or race
ages 4-8; racial preference is white
ages 9 +; in group orientation develops most are comfortable identifying w their racial group
What are the stages of racial identity that WIlliam Cross Identified? What is the hallmark or defining characteristics of each stage
Pre-encounter stage; child absorbs beliefs of dominant white culture, white superiority
encounter stage; transition is often triggered by institutional circumstances and changes in social dynamics
- forces individual to grapple with what it means to be a member of a group targeted by racism
Defining characteristics to Cross' stages of racial identity
Encounter; find same-race peer group outside of school, maintaining ties to Black organizations, sitting at "Black table"
To what extent are African American youth's racial identity related to their self-esteem?
African American children have consistently had high self-esteem (ex; DPJ)
Black Power movement increased in-group orientation and positive racial regard but no effect on self-esteem
Why does racial clustering increase during adolescence among African American youth?
-exploration of racial/ethnic identity
-heightened sensitivity to significance of race
- provides sense of comfort + cohesion
-may reflect that Black adolescents experience predominantly White settings as inhospitable
Three strategies that stigmatized groups such as African Americans use to protect their self-esteem from the prejudice of others
1- attributing negative feedback to prejudice against group
2- selectively comparing outcomes w those of members of one's own group
3- selectively devalueing attributes on which group typically fares poorly; selectively valuing those attributes on which group typically excels
Strategy 1: Attributing negative feedback to prejudice against one's group
-students who had been insulted bc of their race, religion, or nationality were equivalent in self-esteem to students who had not received such insult
-those who believed they had been discriminated against had higher self-esteem
-positive feedback occurring in spite of prejudice against their group are particularly likely to attribute positive outcomes to one's high level of skill/ability/deservingness
Strategy 2: In-group comparisons evidence of protective effects
selectively comparing outcomes w those of members of one's own group
Proximity and similarity/protective effect compared to other stigmatized individuals?
stigmatized persons likely to live in same environments, obtain accurate self-evaluations
-to avoid painful social comparisons
"Caste-like minorities" + "immigrant minorities" definitions (Ogbu)
castelike; minorities who were involuntarily + permanently incorporated into US society through slavery/conquest ex;African Americans
immigrant; minorities who came to US more or less voluntarily w expectation of improving their economic/political/social status
What is the significance of this distinction in Ogbu's explanation of racial gaps in academic achievement?
racial gaps in academic achievement are evident even before school-entry even when social class indicators are taken into account
"oppositional cultural frame of reference" (Ogbu)
caste-like minorities develop devices for protecting their identity and maintaining boundaries between them and white Americans, they regard certain forms of behavior and certain activities or events/symbols etc. as not appropriate for them bc they are characteristics of white Americans
What is academic disidentification? How is it measured?
between 8th and 10th grade correlation between students school achievement and self-esteem decreases more for Black students than White students
-increase in disidentification over time is greater among Black students
-increase in academic disidentification over time is especially pronounced among Black males
Authoritative parenting v authoritarian parenting (Baumrind)
authoritative; warm and nurturant, encourages independence, places limits and controls on child's behavior (strict/high supervision)
authoritarian; restrictive, punitive, low warmth exhorts child to follow parent's directions to respect work and effort, firmly limits and controls child, allows little verbal exchange
What interpretations have been given for the "White" preferences most young African American children display in "doll studies"? Which interpretation seems to have more validity?
African American children when young are more out-group oriented than White children (tend to prefer "white" symbols)
How do Ogbu and Steinberg differ in their analysis of the role of peers in racial groups in academic achievement?
Ogbu; "acting white" and social pressures against academic success from peers
Steinberg; influence of peers offsets influence of parents, African Americans lack of support for academic excellence among peers and peer groups that encourage achievement
Both Ogbu and Steinberg implicate peers in their explanation of racial gaps in academic achievement but in different ways. How does Ogbu + Steinberg differ in their analysis of the role of peers in racial gaps in academic achievement?
Steinberg; influence of peers offsets influence of parents
African Americans lack of support for academic excellence among peers and peer groups that encourage achievement
Ogbu; "acting White" and social pressures against academic success
To what extent does parenting behavior account for race differences in Steinberg's explanation of racial gaps in academic achievement?
cannot be explained bu differences in use of authoritative parenting
-Asian American parents are least authoritative yet children have highest school performance
-effect of authoritative parenting on school achievement depends on ecology in which adolescent lives
Main arguments against Ogbu's explanation of racial gaps in academic achievement?
African American students as a group are no less engaged/invested in education than White peers
-National survey data indicated that Black students compared to White students; - want to attend college at same rate, have similar rates of absenteeism, have parents who are similarly involved in their education
What evidence exists that Black and White teachers differ in their expectations for Black students educational attainment?
when evaluating same student, White teachers less likely that Black colleagues to expect student to earn a college degree, bias slightly more pronounced for Black male students than Black female students
What school factors do Kurtz-Costes et al. identify as contributors to race differences in academic achievement?
School quality; teachers in majority Black schools are much less likely to be certified in academic subject they teach, Black youth experience less challenging curricula than White youth, economic disparities in school funding contribute to racial achievement gaps
Teachers perceptions/expectations; evidence of teacher bias against Black students (lower expectations and differential treatment)
How does Steele define stereotype threat?
Threat of confirming or being judged by a negative stereotype about one's group
What findings from experimental research provide evidence of the existence of stereotype threat?
If taking or expecting to take difficult intellectually diagnostic test makes Black participants feel threatened then their performance might be impaired in diagnostic condition compared to nondiagnostic condition
What are the main findings from Graham's research on African American adolescents academic achievement values?
If taking or expecting to take difficult, intellectually diagnostic test makes Black participants feel threatened, then the test might be expected to activate that stereotype in their thinking and information processing
What findings from experimental research provide evidence of stereotype threat on intellectual/cognitive performance?
If taking or expecting to take a difficult, intellectually diagnostic test makes Black participants feel threatened then test might be expected to activate that stereotype in their thinking and information processing
What strategies employed in intervention research have been found to reduce the effects of stereotype threat?
College students met with low-income 7th graders, conveyed messages through e-mail correspondence incremental condition most beneficial expandable nature of intelligence
What does Steele mean by "wise schooling"?
-optimistic teacher-student relationships
-challenging work, not remedial work
-stressing the expandability of intelligence in response to experience and training
-affirming domain of belongingness, role models, and valuing multiple perspectives
What is cultural capital?
the collection of tangible or intangible assets that one acquires through being part of a particular social class or other group
According to Bordieu, how is cultural capital implicated in social reproduction?
Bordieu maintains that different cultural capital, only middle and upper class capital are valued by schools and recognized as gifts, merits or skill value
- cultural capital is a major source of social inequality and can help or hinder one's social mobility just as much as income/wealth
What does Laureau mean by "concerted cultivation" and "natural growth model"?
middle class parents provide range of enrichment activities to help child develop personal interests, encourage child to elaborate their preferences and voice likes and dislikes
-working glass participates in natural growth model, trust children to develop naturally, limited parental intervention
In general, how do the parenting behaviors and values of African Americans and European Americans differ?
African American parents; place greater importance on respect and obediance, engage in more controlling behaviors, "authoritarian" parenting beliefs, give adolescents fewer opportunities for independent decision-making, less willing to compromise
What explanations have been offered for these differences? (African American and European American parenting differences)
Middle-class African American parents' explanations for these values center primarily around long-term, child-centered socialization goals (e.g., maintaining family or cultural customs/traditions, social order, & shared expectations), rather than need to protect their children from harm
Other sets by this creator
AAS Final Exam
AAS 331 First Exam
Recommended textbook solutions
Consumer Behavior: Buying, Having, Being
Michael R Solomon
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
C. Nathan DeWall, David G Myers
Spencer A. Rathus
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers