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Terms in this set (39)

High homocysteine levels. Homocysteine is an amino acid produced as a normal byproduct of the breakdown of methionine (from proteins). Homocysteine generates superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, both of which have been linked to damage of the endothelial lining of arterial vessels.
Too much Omega-6 fatty acid in the diet. The body converts linoleic acid, the primary fatty acid found in bottled vegetable oil, to arachidonic acid. The Cox-2 enzyme then converts the arachidonic acid to the hormone-like prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and to the cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFa), all of which promote inflammation in the body in general, and in the arterial walls in particular.
Eating high levels of meats and animal fat from grain fattened animals saturates the body with large amounts arachidonic acid. As a point of interest, the high levels of arachidonic acid found in most meat are accumulated from the conversion of Omega-6 fatty acids present in the grains used to fatten them. That means that only minimal levels of arachidonic acid are found in range-fed (grass-fed) beef.
High acid diets. Diets high in meat, sugar, grain, and starch raise acid levels in body tissue - thereby making it hard for the body to clear the lactic acid that builds up in muscle tissue from normal muscle activity. The problem is that when the acid doesn't clear, it irritates, inflames, and scars the muscle tissue in the arterial walls.
High levels of circulating immune complexes in the blood. Circulating immune complexes (CICs) are created when you eat complex proteins (usually from wheat & corn) that cannot be digested thoroughly...they are treated as allergens by the body and combined with antibodies, thus forming CICs. When the number of CICs climbs beyond the ability of the body to eliminate them all, they are deposited in the body's soft tissue, including the arterial walls, thereby triggering attacks by the body's immune system, which results in inflammation.
Inflammation in general. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker — a substance that the liver releases in response to inflammation somewhere in the body. Studies indicate that men with high levels of CRP have triple the risk of heart attack and double the risk of stroke compared to men with lower CRP levels. In women, studies have shown that elevated levels of CRP may increase the risk of a heart attack by as much as seven times. The statin medicines (Advicor, Lescol, Lipitor, Mevacor, Pravachol and Zocor) reduce levels of CRP. This may be more significant in accounting for the ability of these drugs to statistically lower the incidence of heart disease than the role these drugs play in lowering cholesterol levels.
Avoid trans fatty acids at all costs. Hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated oils (the trans fatty acids) are the number one killer in the modern diet.
Optimize the liver. Do a periodic liver flush that includes the use of lipotropic herbs such as dandelion root to flush accumulated fats and cholesterol from the liver and gallbladder.
Lower homocysteine levels. While there is a considerable amount we do not know about homocysteine, we do know how to use nutritional supplements to reduce homocysteine levels. This is done through three independent routes: (1) using folate with vitamin B12, (2) using trimethylglycine (TMG), and (3) through B6. The first two work through a process called methylation, and the B6 through transsulfuration. Such a combined approach can normalize homocysteine in 95% of the people studied.
Optimize Omega-6 to Omega-3 ratios by eliminating bottled vegetable oils found in your supermarket, except for olive oil, and supplementing with fish oil and flax seed oil, which are high in Omega-3 fatty acids. Much of the problem with inflammatory disorders actually stems from a lopsided imbalance in dietary intake of the omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids (results in pro-inflammatory activity). The ideal ratio is roughly 1 to 1; however, over the past 30 years, people from industrialized countries have replaced much of their dietary saturated fat (on the mistaken advice of their doctors and the media) with vegetable oil omega-6 fatty acids. Ratios of 20 to 1 and 30 to 1 are now not uncommon.
A good antioxidant formula can help repair damage to arterial walls.
Proteolytic Enzymes. This is one of the most important things you can do. The regular use of proteolytic enzymes can help eliminate CICs from the body, reduce overall inflammation, dissolve accumulated plaque, and repair arterial scar tissue.
A disease of bones that leads to increased risk of fracture
In osteoporosis the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is deteriorating, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone is altered.
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), bone mass is 2.5 standard deviations below the mean of a young, healthy person
Bone demineralization
Occurs 10-15 years earlier in women than in men
Pathogenesis
Primary effect of estrogen on bone mass is to decrease bone turnover by decreasing osteoclastic activity
At menopausal age, women undergo an accelerated phase of bone loss due to loss of intrinsic estrogen
Methods for measuring bone mass
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
Gold standard
Rapid and precise
10 minute test
Around $100
Able to measure bone density at any site (hip and spine)
Ultrasonography of calcaneus - new, inexpensive.
Good predictor of future fracture risk
Less sensitive than DEXA
CT scan
Good sensitivity
Very expensive
Drugs given to prevent osteoporosis
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators (SERMs)
Designed to mimic the beneficial effects of estrogen on bone, heart, and CNS
Raloxifene
MAY lower the chance of breast cancer
Does increase bone density
Side Effects incl. cramps, hot flashes, serious blood clots, stroke
Reduces vertebral fractures by 30%, but DOES NOT PREVENT HIP FRACTURES!!!
Bisphosphonates
Benefits within one year
Does not prevent fractures...in fact, it may increase the risk of hip and femur (thigh) fractures
Calcitonin
Inhibits bone resorption
Parathyroid Hormone
For severe osteoporosis only...lots of side effects
Sodium fluoride
Don't even get me started!!!!!!!