mixed human bioscience
Terms in this set (80)
carry absorbed fats to the lymphatic system.
Functions of the stomach include all of the following, except
absorption of ingested triglycerides.
The function of the hepatic portal vein is to:
carry absorbed nutrients from the gut to the liver for metabolic processing or storage
The final portion of the small intestine is known as the:
Where is chyme created?
In the stomach
A condition known as short bowel syndrome occurs if a person has lost too much of their small intestine due to surgery or some other cause. What would be the most likely result of having a small intestine that is too short?
Failure to absorb nutrients
Peter has been diagnosed with an ulcer in his jejenum. This is rare because:
The jejenum is unlikely to be exposed to gastric acid
Brian the body builder is on a high-protein diet to help him build muscle. He takes more than the recommended amount of protein each day, to increase his protein stores. What will happen to this protein?
It will be digested into amino acids, absorbed and then used for protein synthesis. Excess will be converted into glucose or fat and the nitrogenous component excreted in the urine.
Blockage of the pancreatic duct can sometimes lead to activation of trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen in the pancreas. What would the result of this activation be?
Trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are proteases, would start to digest the pancreas itself, causing pancreatitis.
Gladys just had her gall bladder removed. This will mean her system will now be less able to:
Mabel is undergoing some tests, and discovers her arterial PO2 is 97 mm Hg. This means:
she has a normal arterial pO2
Which of the following is true regarding the smooth muscle of the bronchioles?
Its contraction increases airway resistance
What keeps the trachea open?
Where is the centre controlling respiration located?
In the brainstem
How is most of the carbon dioxide in the blood transported?
As bicarbonate ion
A baby who is holding his breath:
will start to breathe when the CO2 levels in the blood reach a high enough value.
Which of the following would you expect to increase the rate of gas exchange by the lungs?
Increased surface area of the respiratory membrane
While playing football, Joe is tackled so hard that he breaks a rib. A piece of the broken rib is sticking through the skin and he is having a difficulty breathing. What is likely to have happened?
Joe has a collapsed lung due to piercing of the pleural cavity (pneumothorax).
Which of the folloiwng is true of respiratory gases?
All of the above are true
Charles is having some tests done for a respiratory disorder he has. The doctor measures his FEV1 as 2 litres and his FVC as 4 litres. Then she administers a bronchodilator to Charles, and a few minutes later, takes the same measurements again. This time his FEV1 is 4 litres and his FVC is 5 litres. What does this tell you about Charles's problem?
His problem is likely to be asthma, since the bronchodilator has returned his abnormal results fo normal results.
Compared to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle:
contracts on its own without a command from a nerve cel
At the arterial end of a capillary, water is forced out of the capillary by:
the pressure of the blood in the capillary.
Select the correct statement about the heart valves
The AV valves are supported by chordae tendineae so that regurgitation of blood into the atria during ventricular contraction does not occur
The following is a list of vessels and structures that are associated with the heart:
1) right atrium
2) left atrium
3) right ventricle
4) left ventricle
5) venae cavae
7) pulmonary arteries
8) pulmonary veins
5 venae cavae , 1 right atrium , 3 right ventricle, 7 pulmonary arteries, 8 pulmonary veins, 2 left atrium, 4 left ventricle, 6 aorta
The T wave on an ECG tracing represents:
Albert suffered rheumatic fever as a child, and his mitral valve was damaged as a result. Albert now has mitral valve regurgitation. What effect will this have an Albert's cardiovascular system?
Albert will have a reduced output from the left ventricle, and an increased pressure in the pulmonary circulation
Each of the following changes will result in increased blood flow to a tissue, except :
A person whose ECG shows no P waves, but regular QRS and T complexes is likely to have:
an SA node that is not operating
If the nerves supplying parasympathetic stimulation to the heart were cut, what would the result be?
There would be an increase in the resting heart rate
Which of the following does NOT help to regulate blood pressure?
Progesterone maintains the integrity of the uterine lining and prepares the mammary glands to secrete milk. Which of the following structures makes this possible during the first three months of pregnancy?
The organ that provides mechanical protection and nutritional support for the developing embryo is the
Select the correct statement about the uterine cycle:
If fertilisation occurs, the corpus luteum is maintained by a hormone secreted by the developing embryo
The first stage of labour is the:
Fertilisation generally occurs in the:
uterine tubes or oviducts
Which substances are known to be involved with initiating and sustaining contractions of the pregnant uterus at term?
Oxytocin and prostaglandins
Janice has an abnormality between her ovaries and oviducts (uterine tubes), which prevents her eggs getting into the oviduct after ovulation. Her oviducts and uterus are normal apart from the obstruction between her ovaries and the opening of the oviducts. Her partner, Steve, has healthy sperm. Which of the following reproductive technologies would be most likely to help them to have a baby?
Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)
A vasectomy is an effective form of contraception because:
It prevents sperm being transported to the urethra in the semen
The chromosomes contained in a cell are being examined in the laboratory for diagnostic purposes. This particular cell contains 23 chromosomes, one of which is a Y chromosome. What is this cell most likely to be?
A sperm cell
Alan is undergoing some tests to see whether he is able to father children, as he and his wife haven been trying to conceive for a long time, without success. The tests indicate that although Alan's sperm count is normal, many of his sperm are non-motile. The doctor explains that the sperm seem to be lacking in nutrients normally provided in the semen, so their tails are not moving. Where does this suggest that problem with Alan's sperm might originate?
The seminal vesicles
The type of burn that may require a skin graft is
Through the action of osteoclasts,
bony matrix is dissolved.
The first step in tissue repair involves:
Bone density can be increased by:
A recommendation to help prevent osteoporosis is:
Severe damage to a large area of skin, such as might occur after a large burn, will affect temperature regulation by:
allowing uncontrolled heat loss from the burn site
Lauren has pulled a muscle in her leg just before a big athletics competition. The injured area is red, warm and swollen. Lauren really wants to compete and doesn't want her injury to stop her, so she applies lots of ice, takes pain killers and uses lots of anti-inflammatory cream on the area. What will Lauren's treatment do?
The anti-inflammatory cream and pain killers will allow Lauren to get back on the leg quicker, and will interrupt the healing process, as inflammation is the first step in healing.
Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy to try and reverse this. What hormone might she prescribe for her patient?
Brenda has been anaesthetised so that no signals at all are produced by the nerves supplying the skeletal muscles in her lower body. The result of this would be:
the muscles in her lower body would be completely relaxed and inactive
Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as brittle bone disease, is an inherited disorder of tissue which is characterised by bones which fracture easily and loose, less stable joints. The disorder is due to insufficient or faulty production of a certain protein. Based on the characteristics of the disease, which of the following proteins would you say is missing or faulty
The function of blood is to:
All of the above are correct.
cytoplasmic fragments of large cells.
Erythropoiesis increases when:
oxygen levels in the blood decrease.
Plasma proteins essential in body defence are the
The composition of plasma is closest to that of:
A complete blood cell count that reveals an unusually high number of abnormal leukocytes might indicate:
Which of the following situations would probably NOT result in anaemia?
A male patient complains of physical weakness and fatigue. A blood test shows his haematocrit to be 30%. Which of the following diagnoses is the LEAST likely to explain his symptoms?
Children with a genetic condition called chronic granulomatous disease suffer continual severe infections that may eventually cause death. Which component of blood would you therefore expect to be affected by this condition?
George lives in Sydney. Feeling 'run down', he decides to take a 2-month holiday of a lifetime in the Mountains of Tibet. He consults his GP before and after his trip, and sees a change in his blood test results. What change would you expect after his stay in the mountains?
an increase in the number of red cells in his blood.
Cilia in the airways protect the body by:
trapping foreign particles and moving them back up to the mouth.
Normally, in the process of osmosis, the flow of water molecules into or out of the cell depends upon differences in the
osmolarity inside and outside the cell
The smallest living unit within the human body is:
Cancer cells differ from normal cells in that:
they are usually poorly differentiated
Most of a cell's DNA is located in its:
Breathing the salty spray at the beach can often make it easier for a cystic fibrosis sufferer to breathe. What is the mechanism by which this happens?
Some of the salt is deposited in the airways, causing movement of water out of the airway cells into the airways by osmosis, thus watering down the thick sticky mucus and making it easier for the cilia to clear it.
The antibacterial drugs Tetracyclines are used to treat many bacterial infections. They work by preventing the bacterial ribosomes from functioning, but they do not affect human ribosomes. What effect on the bacteria would you expect these drugs to have?
They would stop the bacteria from being able to make proteins
A cell that is secreting large amounts of a protein is likely to contain a large amount of which organelle?
Which of the following may contribute to causing cancer?
all of the above
Skeletal muscle cells contain large numbers of mitochondria. In addition, endurance training will increase the numbers of mitochondria in skeletal muscle cells still further. This is because:
cells with a high energy demand need large numbers of mitochondria.
If a substance has a pH greater than 7, it is
below are some pH values for solutions. Which would have the greatest concentration of hydrogen ions?
pH 4 (acidic)
Which of the pH values listed below is closest to normal body pH?
pH 7 (neutral)
The nucleus of an atom consists of
protons + neutrons.
The positively charged particles in the nucleus of an atom are:
If the concentration of H+ ions in a solution increased ten-fold, what would the change in pH be?
The pH would DECREASE by 1 unit
Which of the pH values listed below would be associated with the highest concentration of hydroxide ions?
A red blood cell put into a hypertonic solution will:
In an electrolyte solution in a battery, sodium ions would be attracted to:
the negative terminal.
A red blood cell put into a hypotonic solution will:
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