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everything for the exam

Chemical Level

First level of structural organization

Cellular Level

Second level of structural organization

Tissue Level

Third level of structural organization

Organ Level

Fourth level of structural organization

System Level

Fifth level of structural organization

Organismal Level

Six level of structural organization


A condition of equilibrium in the bodies internal environment due to constant interaction of the body's regulatory processes

Feedback System

A cycle of events in which status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed then re-evaluated, etc.


senses changes in a controled condition and sends input to a control center

Control Center

evaluates the input from receptors and generates output command


the structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controled condition

Negative Feedback System

reverses a change in a controled condition (blood pressure)

Positive Feedback System

reinforces a change in a controled condition (childbirth)

anatomical position

where the subject is standing erect facing the observer with the head level, eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor directed forward. The upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward.


towards the head


away from the head


towards the front


towards the back of the body


closer to the center of the body


farther from the midline


on the same side of the body


opposite side of the body


nearer to the attachment to the body of a limb to the trunk


farther from the attachment to the body of a limb to the trunk


towards the surface of the body


away from the surface of the body

transverse plane

a plane the divides the body into superior and inferior portions

midsagital plane

a vertical plane that divides the body equally into right and left sides

parasagital plane

a plane that divides the body unequally into left and right sides

oblique plane

any plane that passes through the body at an angle

frontal plane

a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections

cranial cavity

cavity formed by cranial bones (skull) contains the brain

vertebral canal

canal formed by the vertebrael column (backbone) contains the spinal cord

thoracic cavity

cavity formed by the ribs and diaphragm contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea

pleural cavity

cavity formed by the pleura and surrounds each lung

pericardial cavity

cavity formed by the pericardium and surrounds the heart

mediastinum cavity

cavity that contains everything in the thoracic cavity except the lungs

abdominopelvic cavity

a body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity

abdominal cavity

cavity formed by the diaphragm and an imaginary horizontal line between the two hips

Right hypocondriac region

region that contains the liver

Lumbar Region

region that contains the kidneys

epigastric region

pain here can indicate an ulcer

hypogastric region

region that contains the urinary bladder

Plasma Membrane

membrane that surrounds the cell. Made of lipid bilayer.

Lipid Bilayer

is mainly composed of phospholipids which have a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails.


a molecule that has a polar side and a non-polar side


water loving


water hating ... since water exists both inside and outside the cell, the hydrophobic tails face each other to avoid exposure to water.

Membrane Proteins

1. can form ion channels to allow specific ions into and out of the cell 2. Can form carriers and transporters. 3. can serve as receptors 4. can serve as enzymes to catalize reactions (speed up) 5. can serve as a linker (attaches filiments to the plasma membrane) 6. cell identity marker allows other cells to identify it.

Cell Identity

important for: infection, cancer, organ transplants, autoimmune diseases.

Passive Transport

substances move across the plasma membrane along a concentration gradient from areas of high concentration to low concentration.

Concentration Gradient

substances move from higher concentration to lower concentration

Active Transport System

substances move against the concentration gradient. It requires energy

Factors that effect the rate of passive diffusion

1. the steepness of the concentration gradient. The higher the steepness of the gradient increases the rate. 2. temperature increases, increase the rate of diffusion. 3. mass of the diffusing substance. Increase in mass decreases rate. 4. surface area of membrane - increased surface area = increased rate 5. diffusion distance increased diffusion distance = decreased rate


The movement of a solvent across a selectively permeable membrane

Simple Diffusion

substances pass through the plasma membrane freely without the help of transport proteins

Facilitated Diffusion

the substance requires a channel or carrier to move across the membrane

channel mediated diffusion

most common type is an ion channel. They have gates to control diffusion

carrier mediated diffusion

the substance binds to the carrier on one side of the membrane which triggers the carrier to change shape and bring the substance to the other side.


The movement of a sovent (h20) across a selectively permeable membrane

Hypertonic Solution

when the concentration of solutes in a solution is much higher than inside the cell (cells shrink)


shrinking of red blood cell

Hypotonic Solution

when the concentration of solute in the solution is less than the concentration of solutes in a cell (watered down) ... causes cell to burst


bursting of the blood cell


refers to the concentration of solutes in a solution

Isotonic Solution

Tonicity is the same inside and outside the cell (balanced concentration)

Active Transport

from low to high concentration

Primary Active Transport

uses ATP for energy to move a substance

Secondary Active Transport

uses the concentration gradient of other molecules to move the substance

Na/K pump or sodium potassium pump

an active transport mechanism - 3 na's inside the cell bind to the pump. this triggers ATP hydrolysis, P binds to the pump and triggers the pump to change shape. Brings the 3 Na outside the cell. 2 K outside the cell bind to the pump triggering the P to leave and the pump to change back to it's original shape. K are brought into the cell.


the building blocks of all matter (can't be broken down)

Major Elements

Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen

Lesser Elements

calcium, potassium, sodium and chlorine

Trace Elements

elements found in very small amounts in the boddy


are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons


positive charge




negative charge


made of protons and neutrons


orbit around the nucleus

Atomic Number

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom


refers to an atom with variable numbers of neutrons

Stable Isotopes

the atom will stay in its current state when the number of neutrons is changed


An unstable isotope where the atom will spontaneously change its state and release energy - radiation. (used in imaging and cancer treatment)


the process of an atom losing or gaining an electron.


An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. can be positively or negatively charged.


positively charged molecule


negatively charged molecule


important in cell function


levels affect blood pressure

CA 2+

muscle contraction (heart). Imbalance causes arrhythmias


A molecule that disassociates into at least one H+ and an anion (negative ion) HcL= H+ + CL-


a molecule that disassociates into a least one OH- and a cation (positive ion) KOH = K+ + OH-


Acids and bases react with each other to form what?


A solution's acidity or alkalinity is quantified using this

PH Scale

ranges from 0-14 with 0 being very acidic, 7 neutral and 14 very basic

PH 7

means that H+ and OH- are equal

PH < 7

means that there are more H+'s than there are OH- = acidic

PH >7

means that there are more OH- than there are H+ = basic (alkaline)

Blood PH

PH between 7.35 and 7.45

In blood buffer system

carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system - H+ (strong acid) and HCO3 (weak base) = H2CO3 (weak acid) Carbonic acid

Carbonic Acid -Bicarbonate Buffer System

Converts strong acids into weak ones. An excess of H+ wil drive the reaction to produce more carbonic acid and therefore weaken the effects of H+ as a strong acid

If H+ leaves the blood

a deficiency of H+ will drive the reaction to produce more bicarbonate (H2CO3) and more H+ thereby providing the body with more H+ to replace those H+ that were lost.


bring things into the cell


brings things outside the cell

Receptor Mediated Endocytosis

requires a receptor and clathirin coating


requires a receptor (no clathirin). Used to take in larger particles or bacteria


no receptor, no clathirin. Vesicles randomly form.

Cytoplasm or cytosol

intracellular fluid


It is a network of protein filiments that give the cell structure and allows the cell to move.


important in muscle contraction

intermediate filiments

a filiment with no specific importance


A filiment important to cell division


important for cell division


act as oars of a boat. They are rigid and move fluid such as mucus along the surface of its cell. (example: Trachea cell)


are much larger than cilia and move the entire cell in a swimming like fashion (sperm)


Cell organelle that is the site of protein synthesis. Makes protein.

Endoplasmic Reticulum

a network of membranes that extend from the nucleus

Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

has ribosomes and produces many different kinds of proteins. Produces phospholipids. Attaches proteins to the phospholipids

Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

has no ribosomes. stores the calcium ion. Important in muscle contraction and synthesizes fatty acids and steroids

Golgi Complex

processes and packages protein released from the endoplasmic reticulum and sends them to their destinations (the UPS of the cell)


Stomach of the cell


refers to the digestion of old and worn out organelles


refers to digestion of a worn out or dying cell


digests old or unneeded proteins


the powerhouse of the cell. Produces the majority of the cells energy (ATP). Has an outer and inner membrane. Matrix is the area between the membranes. Contains its own DNA and can self replicate


folds in the inner membrane of the Mitochondria and is the site of ATP production


the brain of the cell and contains DNA

Somatic Cell

Any cell in the body that isn't a gamete (sperm or ovum)


immediately after the cell divides it enters interphase made up of 3 phases G1, S and G2


During this phase the cell replicates almost all of its organelles (not DNA and the centrosome begins to replicate)


DNA replicates


centrosome completes it's replication. Enzymes and proteins are made in preparation for cell division.

Mitotic Phase

contains 2 events: Mitosis (nucleus divides) and Cytokenesis (cells divide)


The chromatin fibers of DNA fold up back into chromosomes. The centrosomes travel to opposite ends of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks up. The pericentrial material materializes into the mitotic spindle (the filiments that make up the mitotic spindle are the microtubules) The microtubules of the mitotic spindle connect the centreoles to the centromere.


the microtubles of the mitotic spindle align the centromeres while the centrioles remain at opposite ends of the cell. The midpoint is called the metaphase plate


The centromeres split to opposite ends and separate each pair of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow forms in preparation of cytokinesis


The chromosomes uncoil and revert to the uncoiled chromatin. The nuclear membrane forms around each mass of chromatin and the mitotic spindle breaks up. The cleavage furrow continues to develop until cytokinesis is complete and the cell has divided into 2 cells.

Epithelial Tissue

covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts, forms glands

Connective Tissue

protects and supports the body

Muscular Tissue

for movement, generates heat

Nervous Tissue

nerves, brain and spinal cord

Tight Junction

weblike strands of proteins that fuse cell surfaces to each other to prevent leakage (ex: stomach)

Adherance Junction

they hold cells together, especially in areas of weaker contractions (ex: intestines)


prevent separation of cells, especially in areas of strong contractions (ex: heart and skeletal muscles)


cell junction that anchors a cell to the basement membrane

Gap Junction

allows easy diffusion of substances between cells especially in tissues that lack their own blood supply

Epithelial Tissue

a selective barrier that limits and aids the transfer of substances into and out of the body. Serves as secretory surfaces (secretes mucus). Also serves as protective surfaces.


top of a cell

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