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164 terms

A&P Exam 1

everything for the exam
STUDY
PLAY
Chemical Level
First level of structural organization
Cellular Level
Second level of structural organization
Tissue Level
Third level of structural organization
Organ Level
Fourth level of structural organization
System Level
Fifth level of structural organization
Organismal Level
Six level of structural organization
Homeostasis
A condition of equilibrium in the bodies internal environment due to constant interaction of the body's regulatory processes
Feedback System
A cycle of events in which status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed then re-evaluated, etc.
Receptor
senses changes in a controled condition and sends input to a control center
Control Center
evaluates the input from receptors and generates output command
Effector
the structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controled condition
Negative Feedback System
reverses a change in a controled condition (blood pressure)
Positive Feedback System
reinforces a change in a controled condition (childbirth)
anatomical position
where the subject is standing erect facing the observer with the head level, eyes facing forward, feet flat on the floor directed forward. The upper limbs are at the sides with the palms turned forward.
superior
towards the head
inferior
away from the head
anterior
towards the front
posterior
towards the back of the body
medial
closer to the center of the body
lateral
farther from the midline
ipsolateral
on the same side of the body
contralateral
opposite side of the body
proximal
nearer to the attachment to the body of a limb to the trunk
distal
farther from the attachment to the body of a limb to the trunk
superficial
towards the surface of the body
deep
away from the surface of the body
transverse plane
a plane the divides the body into superior and inferior portions
midsagital plane
a vertical plane that divides the body equally into right and left sides
parasagital plane
a plane that divides the body unequally into left and right sides
oblique plane
any plane that passes through the body at an angle
frontal plane
a plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior sections
cranial cavity
cavity formed by cranial bones (skull) contains the brain
vertebral canal
canal formed by the vertebrael column (backbone) contains the spinal cord
thoracic cavity
cavity formed by the ribs and diaphragm contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea
pleural cavity
cavity formed by the pleura and surrounds each lung
pericardial cavity
cavity formed by the pericardium and surrounds the heart
mediastinum cavity
cavity that contains everything in the thoracic cavity except the lungs
abdominopelvic cavity
a body cavity that consists of the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity
abdominal cavity
cavity formed by the diaphragm and an imaginary horizontal line between the two hips
Right hypocondriac region
region that contains the liver
Lumbar Region
region that contains the kidneys
epigastric region
pain here can indicate an ulcer
hypogastric region
region that contains the urinary bladder
Plasma Membrane
membrane that surrounds the cell. Made of lipid bilayer.
Lipid Bilayer
is mainly composed of phospholipids which have a hydrophilic head and two hydrophobic tails.
Amphilphathic
a molecule that has a polar side and a non-polar side
hydrophylic
water loving
hydrophobic
water hating ... since water exists both inside and outside the cell, the hydrophobic tails face each other to avoid exposure to water.
Membrane Proteins
1. can form ion channels to allow specific ions into and out of the cell 2. Can form carriers and transporters. 3. can serve as receptors 4. can serve as enzymes to catalize reactions (speed up) 5. can serve as a linker (attaches filiments to the plasma membrane) 6. cell identity marker allows other cells to identify it.
Cell Identity
important for: infection, cancer, organ transplants, autoimmune diseases.
Passive Transport
substances move across the plasma membrane along a concentration gradient from areas of high concentration to low concentration.
Concentration Gradient
substances move from higher concentration to lower concentration
Active Transport System
substances move against the concentration gradient. It requires energy
Factors that effect the rate of passive diffusion
1. the steepness of the concentration gradient. The higher the steepness of the gradient increases the rate. 2. temperature increases, increase the rate of diffusion. 3. mass of the diffusing substance. Increase in mass decreases rate. 4. surface area of membrane - increased surface area = increased rate 5. diffusion distance increased diffusion distance = decreased rate
Osmosis
The movement of a solvent across a selectively permeable membrane
Simple Diffusion
substances pass through the plasma membrane freely without the help of transport proteins
Facilitated Diffusion
the substance requires a channel or carrier to move across the membrane
channel mediated diffusion
most common type is an ion channel. They have gates to control diffusion
carrier mediated diffusion
the substance binds to the carrier on one side of the membrane which triggers the carrier to change shape and bring the substance to the other side.
Osmosis
The movement of a sovent (h20) across a selectively permeable membrane
Hypertonic Solution
when the concentration of solutes in a solution is much higher than inside the cell (cells shrink)
Crenation
shrinking of red blood cell
Hypotonic Solution
when the concentration of solute in the solution is less than the concentration of solutes in a cell (watered down) ... causes cell to burst
Hemolysis
bursting of the blood cell
Tonicity
refers to the concentration of solutes in a solution
Isotonic Solution
Tonicity is the same inside and outside the cell (balanced concentration)
Active Transport
from low to high concentration
Primary Active Transport
uses ATP for energy to move a substance
Secondary Active Transport
uses the concentration gradient of other molecules to move the substance
Na/K pump or sodium potassium pump
an active transport mechanism - 3 na's inside the cell bind to the pump. this triggers ATP hydrolysis, P binds to the pump and triggers the pump to change shape. Brings the 3 Na outside the cell. 2 K outside the cell bind to the pump triggering the P to leave and the pump to change back to it's original shape. K are brought into the cell.
Elements
the building blocks of all matter (can't be broken down)
Major Elements
Hydrogen, oxygen, carbon and nitrogen
Lesser Elements
calcium, potassium, sodium and chlorine
Trace Elements
elements found in very small amounts in the boddy
Atoms
are made up of protons, neutrons and electrons
Protons
positive charge
neutrons
neutral
electrons
negative charge
nucleus
made of protons and neutrons
Electrons
orbit around the nucleus
Atomic Number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
Isotope
refers to an atom with variable numbers of neutrons
Stable Isotopes
the atom will stay in its current state when the number of neutrons is changed
Radioisotopes
An unstable isotope where the atom will spontaneously change its state and release energy - radiation. (used in imaging and cancer treatment)
Ionization
the process of an atom losing or gaining an electron.
Ion
An atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. can be positively or negatively charged.
Cation
positively charged molecule
anion
negatively charged molecule
Electrolytes
important in cell function
Na
levels affect blood pressure
CA 2+
muscle contraction (heart). Imbalance causes arrhythmias
Acids
A molecule that disassociates into at least one H+ and an anion (negative ion) HcL= H+ + CL-
Bases
a molecule that disassociates into a least one OH- and a cation (positive ion) KOH = K+ + OH-
Salts
Acids and bases react with each other to form what?
PH
A solution's acidity or alkalinity is quantified using this
PH Scale
ranges from 0-14 with 0 being very acidic, 7 neutral and 14 very basic
PH 7
means that H+ and OH- are equal
PH < 7
means that there are more H+'s than there are OH- = acidic
PH >7
means that there are more OH- than there are H+ = basic (alkaline)
Blood PH
PH between 7.35 and 7.45
In blood buffer system
carbonic acid - bicarbonate buffer system - H+ (strong acid) and HCO3 (weak base) = H2CO3 (weak acid) Carbonic acid
Carbonic Acid -Bicarbonate Buffer System
Converts strong acids into weak ones. An excess of H+ wil drive the reaction to produce more carbonic acid and therefore weaken the effects of H+ as a strong acid
If H+ leaves the blood
a deficiency of H+ will drive the reaction to produce more bicarbonate (H2CO3) and more H+ thereby providing the body with more H+ to replace those H+ that were lost.
Endocytosis
bring things into the cell
exocytosis
brings things outside the cell
Receptor Mediated Endocytosis
requires a receptor and clathirin coating
Phagocytosis
requires a receptor (no clathirin). Used to take in larger particles or bacteria
Pinocytosis
no receptor, no clathirin. Vesicles randomly form.
Cytoplasm or cytosol
intracellular fluid
Cytoskeleton
It is a network of protein filiments that give the cell structure and allows the cell to move.
Microfiliments
important in muscle contraction
intermediate filiments
a filiment with no specific importance
microtubules
A filiment important to cell division
Centrosome
important for cell division
Cilia
act as oars of a boat. They are rigid and move fluid such as mucus along the surface of its cell. (example: Trachea cell)
Flagella
are much larger than cilia and move the entire cell in a swimming like fashion (sperm)
Ribosomes
Cell organelle that is the site of protein synthesis. Makes protein.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
a network of membranes that extend from the nucleus
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
has ribosomes and produces many different kinds of proteins. Produces phospholipids. Attaches proteins to the phospholipids
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
has no ribosomes. stores the calcium ion. Important in muscle contraction and synthesizes fatty acids and steroids
Golgi Complex
processes and packages protein released from the endoplasmic reticulum and sends them to their destinations (the UPS of the cell)
Lysosome
Stomach of the cell
Autophagy
refers to the digestion of old and worn out organelles
Autolysis
refers to digestion of a worn out or dying cell
Proteasome
digests old or unneeded proteins
Mitochondria
the powerhouse of the cell. Produces the majority of the cells energy (ATP). Has an outer and inner membrane. Matrix is the area between the membranes. Contains its own DNA and can self replicate
Christae
folds in the inner membrane of the Mitochondria and is the site of ATP production
Nucleus
the brain of the cell and contains DNA
Somatic Cell
Any cell in the body that isn't a gamete (sperm or ovum)
Interphase
immediately after the cell divides it enters interphase made up of 3 phases G1, S and G2
G1
During this phase the cell replicates almost all of its organelles (not DNA and the centrosome begins to replicate)
S
DNA replicates
G2
centrosome completes it's replication. Enzymes and proteins are made in preparation for cell division.
Mitotic Phase
contains 2 events: Mitosis (nucleus divides) and Cytokenesis (cells divide)
Prophase
The chromatin fibers of DNA fold up back into chromosomes. The centrosomes travel to opposite ends of the cell. The nuclear membrane breaks up. The pericentrial material materializes into the mitotic spindle (the filiments that make up the mitotic spindle are the microtubules) The microtubules of the mitotic spindle connect the centreoles to the centromere.
Metaphase
the microtubles of the mitotic spindle align the centromeres while the centrioles remain at opposite ends of the cell. The midpoint is called the metaphase plate
Anaphase
The centromeres split to opposite ends and separate each pair of chromosomes. A cleavage furrow forms in preparation of cytokinesis
Telophase
The chromosomes uncoil and revert to the uncoiled chromatin. The nuclear membrane forms around each mass of chromatin and the mitotic spindle breaks up. The cleavage furrow continues to develop until cytokinesis is complete and the cell has divided into 2 cells.
Epithelial Tissue
covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs, body cavities and ducts, forms glands
Connective Tissue
protects and supports the body
Muscular Tissue
for movement, generates heat
Nervous Tissue
nerves, brain and spinal cord
Tight Junction
weblike strands of proteins that fuse cell surfaces to each other to prevent leakage (ex: stomach)
Adherance Junction
they hold cells together, especially in areas of weaker contractions (ex: intestines)
Desmosomes
prevent separation of cells, especially in areas of strong contractions (ex: heart and skeletal muscles)
hemidesmosomes
cell junction that anchors a cell to the basement membrane
Gap Junction
allows easy diffusion of substances between cells especially in tissues that lack their own blood supply
Epithelial Tissue
a selective barrier that limits and aids the transfer of substances into and out of the body. Serves as secretory surfaces (secretes mucus). Also serves as protective surfaces.
Apical
top of a cell
lateral
side of a cell
basal
bottom of a cell
basement membrane
serves as an attachment point and support for epithelial cells. Made up of Basal Lamina
Basal Lamina
secreted by epithelial cells
Reticular Lamina
secreted by connective tissue cells
Simple Epithelium
single layer of epithelial cells whose function is diffusion, filtration, secretions and absorbption
Stratified Epithelium
multiple layers of cells that function as protection for the underlying tissue
Pseudostratified Epithelium
A single layer of cells. Some of which extend to the apical (top) surface. The location of the nucleus varies from cell to cell
Squamous Cells
cells are thin and flattened to allow easy and rapid diffusion of substances
Cuboidal Cells
cells that are shaped like cubes or hexigons
Columnar cells
tall and thin cells shaped like columns. Protects the underlying tissue and also function to secrete and absorb substances
Transitional Cells
cells that change shape between flat and cubodial in organs that stretch (ex. Urinary bladder)
Simple Epithelium
Simple Squamous Epithelium, Simple Cubodial, Simple Columnar, pseudostratified columnar epithelium. The last two can be ciliated and non-ciliated.
Stratified Epithelium
Stratified squamous epithelium, stratified cubodial epithelium, stratified columnar epithelium and transitional epithelium
Chromatin
Mass of genetic material composed of DNA and proteins that condense to form chromosomes during cell division. Located in the nucleus of a cell.