33 terms

Org Manag Chp 7

Technology Cycle
a cycle that begins with the "birth" of a new technology and ends when that technology reaches its limits and is replaced by a newer, substantially better technology
S-Curve Pattern of Innovation
a pattern of technological innovation characterized by slow initial process then rapid progress and then slow progress again as a technology matures and reach its limits
Innovation Streams
patterns of innovation over time that can create sustainable competitive advantage
Technological Discontinuity
the phase of an innovation stream in which a scientific advance or unique combination of existing technologies creates a significant breakthrough in performance or function
Discontinuous Change
the phase of a technology cycle characterized by technological substitution and design competition
Technological Substitution
the purchase of new technologies to replace older ones
Design Competition
competition between old and new technologies to establish a new technological standard or dominant design
Dominate Design
A new technological design or process that becomes the accepted market standard
Technological Lockout
the inability of a company to competitively sell its products because it relied on old technology or a nondominant design
Incremental Change
the phase of a technology cycle in which companies innovate by lowering costs and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant technological design
Creative Work Environments
workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged
A psychological state of effortlessness, in which you become completely absorbed in what you're doing and time seems to pass quickly
Experiential Approach to Innovation
an approach to innovation that assumes a highly uncertain environment and uses intuition, flexible options, and hands-on experience to reduce uncertainty and accelerate learning and understanding
Design Iteration
a cycle of repetition in which a company tests a prototype of a new product or service, improves on that design, and then builds and tests the improved prototype
Product Prototype
a full-scale working model that is being tested for design, function, and reliability
the systematic comparison of different product designs or design iterations
formal project review points used to assess progress and performance
Multifunctional Teams
work teams composed of people from different departments
Compression Approach to Innovation
an approach to innovation that assumes that incremental innovation can be planned using a series of steps and that compressing those steps can speed innovation
Generational Change
change based on incremental improvements to a dominant technological design such that the improved technology is fully backward compatible with the older technology
Organizational Decline
a large decrease in organizational performance that occurs when companies don't anticipate, recognize, neutralize, or adapt to the internal or external pressures that threaten their survival
Change Forces
forces that produce differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time
Resistance Forces
forces that support the existing state of conditions in organizations
Resistance to Change
opposition to change resulting from self interest misunderstandings and distrust or a general intolerance for change
getting the people affected by change to believe that change is needed
Change Intervention
the process used to get workers and managers to change their behavior and work practices
supporting and reinforcing new changes so that they "stick"
The use of formal power and authority to force others to change
Results-Driven Change
change created quickly by focusing on the measurement and improvement of results
General Electric Workout
a three-day meeting in which managers and employees from different levels and parts of an organization quickly generate and act on solutions to specific business problems
Transition Management Team
a team of 8 to 12 people whose full-time job is to manage and coordinate a company's change process
Organizational Development
a philosophy and collection of planned change interventions designed to improve an organization's long-term health and performance
Change Agent
the person formally in charge of guiding a change effort