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thomas dye defined public policy as

whatever governments choose to do or not to do

setting public policy usually involves questions of

who will benefit and who will pay the bill

public policy includes

providing benefits for the public good, regulating the private sector, and effects of the governmental process

teh first stage of teh policy process is

identification and formation of an issue

the activities of the implementation phase of the policy process include

interpretation, organization, and application

at the state level, the various interested parties in a policy area are often referred to as

iron triangles

hugh heclo's _____ networks are complex and inclusive models of the relationships inherent in the policy process.


like most other states, texas operates on a pay-as-you-go basis that prohibits

deficit spending

the biggest share of state expenditures, including federal funds appropriated by the legislature, is for


in 2010-2011, ____ percent of the texas budget was devoted to education


the second largest share of the state budget is for

health and human services

because of the nature of the texas budget cycle, agencies must anticipate spending needs up to ____ in advance

3 years

during the last decade, ____ take up most of the texas budget

federally driven programs and mandates

each time the texas legislature meets in a regular session they must write a

two-year budget

the highway trust fund is an example of a ____ fund


____ the authority to transfer funds to meet emergencies between legislative sessions

the governor and legislative leaders together have

texas does not have ____ taxes

personal income

a 2003 study found the wealthiest 1 percent of texas families paid ____ percent of their incomes in state and local taxes


the last major chance in the state's general tax policy occured in 1961, when the legislature enacted the first

sales tax

the sales tax currently produces about ____ percent of state revenue


with each financial crisis, it becomes ____ for the legislature to raise the sales tax rate

more politically difficult

sales taxes are


as the state's economy shifts more and more to services, sales tax revenue

does not automatically grow

the franchise tax, formerly the state's main business tax, was replaced in 2006 with

a broader-based business tax that applied not only to corporations but also to professional partnerships

the new business tax was instituted to make up for lower ____ ordered by the texas supreme court

school property taxes

the biggest source of texas taxpayer dissatisfaction and anger in recent years has been the

ad valorem property tax

in recent years, oil and gas severance taxed have accounted for ____ percent of state tax revenue


the taxes collected on products such as cigarettes and beer are often called ____ taxes


in 19991, the state passed a constitutional amendment to legalize state

lottery ticket sales

the texas lottery was the first lottery in the U.S. to collect over $____ billion in its first two years


in 1997, lawmakers dedicated lottery revenue to

public education

even though the texas constitution has a general prohibition against state government debt, the state had about $____ billion in state bonds outstanding in 2008


according to some experts, state bond interest can ____ the cost of a construction project


within two months of succeeding Lieutenant Bill Hobby, Bob Bullock shocked much of the political establishment by announcing that he would actively

campaign for a state sales tax

in 1984, house bill 72 overhauled public education in texas and

limited class sizes

the most controversial provisions in 1984 education reform law were

a literacy test for teachers and the "no pass, no play" rule

the 1984 education reform law did not change the basic education finance system, an omission resulting in

Edgewood v. Kirby

in 1989, the texas supreme court said the existing education finance system violated a state constitutional requirement for

an efficient system of public education

in 2006, local property taxes paid for about ____ percent of public education costs


in reviewing a 1988 appeals corut decision, the texas supreme court stated that in the amount of money spent on a student's education has ____ impact on the educational opportunity offered that student

a real and meaningful

texas has ____ community or junior college districts


in early 1997, attorny general dan morales interpreted the hopwood ruling as prohibiting all texas universities from using race or ethnicity as a preferential factor in


in an attempt to give the best students from poor and minority public school districts an equal footing in university admissions, the legislature enacted a 1997 law that guaranteed automatic admission to state universities for a high school graduate who finished in the top ____ percent of his or her class


a 1997 law concerning texas university admissions policies allowed university officials deciding which students would be admitted to consider criteria such as

a student's family income and high school standing, and a parent's education level

in 2003, ____ officials successfully lobbied the texas legislature for a new law that gave individual university governing boards the freedom to set tuition rates independent of legislative action

the university of texas

the 1980 riz v. estelle federal court case dealt with the issue of

prison reform

texas officials ignored deteriorating state prison condition until a 1980 ruling by ____, which declared the texas prison system unconstitutional

federal judge william wane justice

in the decades following the ruiz decision, texas dealt with the problem of its overcrowded prisons by

doubling the size of the prison system

____ was the first woman executed in texas since the civil war

karla faye tucker

a 2000 scripps howard poll found that ____ percent of texans supported the death penalty


according to the text, health and human services are the areas where state governments consider compassion versus the cold realities of the budget, and where texas has historically been


according to the 2007 american community survey, approximately ____ percent of texans live in poverty


the texas legislature enacted a 1995 law that did NOT require recipients of public assistance to

get a four-year degree

the texas ____ is the state agency primarily responsible for moving people from welfare to work

workforce commission

in 1999, nearly ____ of texas children didn't have health insurance


in 2003, the texas legislature ordered a major reorganization of the state's health and human services agencies, supported heavily by the ____ in the legislature


efforts to privatize applicant eligibility for public services

were unsuccessful and the contract was cut two years early

in early 1998, shortly before the texas lawsuit against the tobacco industry was scheduled to go to trial, state attorney general dan morales and tobacco industry attorneys negotiated a settlement of over $____ billion


a1992 national environmental survey of the quality of all fifty states' government programs protecting natural resources ranked texas


in 1999, ____ became the nation's "dirtiest air" city


many texas political figures still debate the ____ of global warming despite a 2009 report by texas a&m scientists

veracity; warning of disastrous threats to the texas gulf coast

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