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61 terms

Contemporary Public Policy Issues in Texas

STUDY
PLAY
thomas dye defined public policy as
whatever governments choose to do or not to do
setting public policy usually involves questions of
who will benefit and who will pay the bill
public policy includes
providing benefits for the public good, regulating the private sector, and effects of the governmental process
teh first stage of teh policy process is
identification and formation of an issue
the activities of the implementation phase of the policy process include
interpretation, organization, and application
at the state level, the various interested parties in a policy area are often referred to as
iron triangles
hugh heclo's _____ networks are complex and inclusive models of the relationships inherent in the policy process.
issue
like most other states, texas operates on a pay-as-you-go basis that prohibits
deficit spending
the biggest share of state expenditures, including federal funds appropriated by the legislature, is for
education
in 2010-2011, ____ percent of the texas budget was devoted to education
41
the second largest share of the state budget is for
health and human services
because of the nature of the texas budget cycle, agencies must anticipate spending needs up to ____ in advance
3 years
during the last decade, ____ take up most of the texas budget
federally driven programs and mandates
each time the texas legislature meets in a regular session they must write a
two-year budget
the highway trust fund is an example of a ____ fund
dedicated
____ the authority to transfer funds to meet emergencies between legislative sessions
the governor and legislative leaders together have
texas does not have ____ taxes
personal income
a 2003 study found the wealthiest 1 percent of texas families paid ____ percent of their incomes in state and local taxes
3.5
the last major chance in the state's general tax policy occured in 1961, when the legislature enacted the first
sales tax
the sales tax currently produces about ____ percent of state revenue
25
with each financial crisis, it becomes ____ for the legislature to raise the sales tax rate
more politically difficult
sales taxes are
regressive
as the state's economy shifts more and more to services, sales tax revenue
does not automatically grow
the franchise tax, formerly the state's main business tax, was replaced in 2006 with
a broader-based business tax that applied not only to corporations but also to professional partnerships
the new business tax was instituted to make up for lower ____ ordered by the texas supreme court
school property taxes
the biggest source of texas taxpayer dissatisfaction and anger in recent years has been the
ad valorem property tax
in recent years, oil and gas severance taxed have accounted for ____ percent of state tax revenue
5
the taxes collected on products such as cigarettes and beer are often called ____ taxes
sin
in 19991, the state passed a constitutional amendment to legalize state
lottery ticket sales
the texas lottery was the first lottery in the U.S. to collect over $____ billion in its first two years
4
in 1997, lawmakers dedicated lottery revenue to
public education
even though the texas constitution has a general prohibition against state government debt, the state had about $____ billion in state bonds outstanding in 2008
31.2
according to some experts, state bond interest can ____ the cost of a construction project
double
within two months of succeeding Lieutenant Bill Hobby, Bob Bullock shocked much of the political establishment by announcing that he would actively
campaign for a state sales tax
in 1984, house bill 72 overhauled public education in texas and
limited class sizes
the most controversial provisions in 1984 education reform law were
a literacy test for teachers and the "no pass, no play" rule
the 1984 education reform law did not change the basic education finance system, an omission resulting in
Edgewood v. Kirby
in 1989, the texas supreme court said the existing education finance system violated a state constitutional requirement for
an efficient system of public education
in 2006, local property taxes paid for about ____ percent of public education costs
50
in reviewing a 1988 appeals corut decision, the texas supreme court stated that in the amount of money spent on a student's education has ____ impact on the educational opportunity offered that student
a real and meaningful
texas has ____ community or junior college districts
50
in early 1997, attorny general dan morales interpreted the hopwood ruling as prohibiting all texas universities from using race or ethnicity as a preferential factor in
admissions
in an attempt to give the best students from poor and minority public school districts an equal footing in university admissions, the legislature enacted a 1997 law that guaranteed automatic admission to state universities for a high school graduate who finished in the top ____ percent of his or her class
10
a 1997 law concerning texas university admissions policies allowed university officials deciding which students would be admitted to consider criteria such as
a student's family income and high school standing, and a parent's education level
in 2003, ____ officials successfully lobbied the texas legislature for a new law that gave individual university governing boards the freedom to set tuition rates independent of legislative action
the university of texas
the 1980 riz v. estelle federal court case dealt with the issue of
prison reform
texas officials ignored deteriorating state prison condition until a 1980 ruling by ____, which declared the texas prison system unconstitutional
federal judge william wane justice
in the decades following the ruiz decision, texas dealt with the problem of its overcrowded prisons by
doubling the size of the prison system
____ was the first woman executed in texas since the civil war
karla faye tucker
a 2000 scripps howard poll found that ____ percent of texans supported the death penalty
73
according to the text, health and human services are the areas where state governments consider compassion versus the cold realities of the budget, and where texas has historically been
stingy
according to the 2007 american community survey, approximately ____ percent of texans live in poverty
16.3
the texas legislature enacted a 1995 law that did NOT require recipients of public assistance to
get a four-year degree
the texas ____ is the state agency primarily responsible for moving people from welfare to work
workforce commission
in 1999, nearly ____ of texas children didn't have health insurance
one-fourth
in 2003, the texas legislature ordered a major reorganization of the state's health and human services agencies, supported heavily by the ____ in the legislature
republicans
efforts to privatize applicant eligibility for public services
were unsuccessful and the contract was cut two years early
in early 1998, shortly before the texas lawsuit against the tobacco industry was scheduled to go to trial, state attorney general dan morales and tobacco industry attorneys negotiated a settlement of over $____ billion
17
a1992 national environmental survey of the quality of all fifty states' government programs protecting natural resources ranked texas
48th
in 1999, ____ became the nation's "dirtiest air" city
houston
many texas political figures still debate the ____ of global warming despite a 2009 report by texas a&m scientists
veracity; warning of disastrous threats to the texas gulf coast