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140 terms

Bio 2114 Test #'s 1 - 3

Chattahoochee Tech BIO2114
STUDY
PLAY
Normal development of the immune response is due in part to hormones produced by the______.

A. adrenal medulla
B. pancreas
C. thyroid gland
D. thymus gland
D. thymus gland
Virtually all of the protein or amino acid-based hormones exert their effects through intracellular ____.

A. ions
B. deactivators
C. nucleotides
D. second messengers
D. second messengers
Which of the following is not a category of endocrine gland stimulus?

A. enzyme
B. humoral
C. neural
D. hormonal
A. enzyme
Chemical substances secreted by cells into the extracellular fluids and that regulate the metabolic function of other cells in the body are called ____.

A. enzymes
B. antibodies
C. proteins
D. hormones
D. hormones
The hypothalmic-hypophyseal tract _________.

A. connects the hypophysis to the pituitary gland
B. is partly contained within the infundibulum
C. conducts aldosterone to the hypophysis
D. is the site of prolactin syntesis
B. is partly contained within the infundibulim
Glucogeneiss occurs in the liver due to the action of ____.

A. aldosterone
B. insulin
C. secretin
D. cortisol
C. cortisol
Which of the following is not a cardinal sign of diabetes mellitus?

A. polyuria
B. polydipsia
C. polyphagia
D. All of these are signs
D. All of these are signs
Which of the choices below is not a factor required for target cell activation by hormone receptor interaction?

A. blood levels of hormone
B. type of hormone
C. number of receptors for that hormone
D. strength of the bond between the receptor and hormone
B. type of hormone
Oxytocin _________.

A. release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
B. is an adenohypophyseal secretion
C. exerts its most important effects during menstruation
D. controls milk production
A. release is an example of a positive feedback control mechanism
ADH _________.

A. increases urine production
B. promotes dehydration
C. is produced in the adenohypophysis
D. is inhibited by alcohol
D. is inhibited by alcohol
Thyroid hormoe exerts its influence by _______.

A. entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
B. exerting only a minor effect on body metabolism
C. causing a reduction in the number of blood vessel adrenergic receptors, and therefore decreasing blood pressure
D. acting to decrease the basal metabolic rate
A. entering some cells and binding to intracellular receptors within the nuclei
Gonadocorticoid(s) ______.

A. synthesized by the adrenal medulla are primarily androgens
B. production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads during late puberty
C. secretion inhibition is highly dependent on a negative feedback loop involving ACTH
D. hypersecretion can result in adrenogenital syndrome, also called feminization
B. production by the adrenal gland is insignificant compared with sex hormone release from the gonads
Sometimes prolonged excessive exposure to high hormone concentrations causes a phenomenon known as _________.

A. diabetes mellitus
B. cellular inhibition
C. down-regulation
D. metabolism of protein kinases
C. down-regulation
Which of the following is not a change that may be caused by hormonal stimulus?

A. a change in membrane potential
B. the stimulation of a genetic event resulting in protein synthesis
C. an increase in enzymatic activity
D. direct control of the nervous system
D. direct control of the nervous system
The ability of a specific tissue or organ to respond to the presence of a hormone is dependent on _______.

A. the location of the tissue or organ with respect to the circulatory path
B. the membrane potential of the cells of the target organ
C. the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
D. nothing - all hormones of the human body are able to stimulate any and all cell types because hormones are powerful and nonspecific
C. the presence of the appropriate receptors on the cells of the target tissue or organ
Several hormones are synthesized in the hypothalamus and transported to the anterior pituitary gland. The mechanism of transportation from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary gland is through the ________.

A. hepatic portal system
B. general circulatory system
C. hypophyseal portal system
D. feedback loop
C. hypophyseal portal system
The neurohypophysis or posterior lobe of the pituitary gland is not a true endocrine gland because _____.

A. it is strictly a part of the neural system and has little or nothing to do with hormonal release
B. embryonically it was an endocrine tissue, but in the adult human it is no longer functional
C. it is unable to function as an endocrine tissue because it is actually part of the neural system due to its location
D. it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
D. it is only a hormone storage area that receives hormones from the hypothalamus for release
Steroid hormones exert their action by ______.

A. entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
B. finding an appropriate cell receptor and initiating cAMP activity
C. stimulating the synthesis of a glycogen
D. increasing blood pressure
A. entering the nucleus of a cell and initiating or altering the expression of a gene
The second-messenger mechanism of hormone action operates by ____.

A. synthesizing more of the hormone that is actually needed
B. increasing the basal metabolic rate in the target organ
C. not responding to a feedback mechanism
D. binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
D. binding to specific receptors and employing the services of G proteins and cAMP
Hormones often cause a cell to elicit multiple responses; this is because ____.

A. three are thousand o receptors on the cell membrane
B. the receptors bind to several hormones at the same time
C. the protein kinases are rapidly metabolized
D. during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
D. during protein kinase activation, enzymes phosphorylate many other enzymes
Cells that respond to peptide hormones usually do so through a sequence of biochemical reactions involving receptor and kinase activation. In order for cells to respond, it is necessary for first and second messengers to communicate. This is possible because _______.

A. peptide hormones always enter the cell membrane and elicit a response without assistance from other messengers
B. hormones alter cellular operations through stimulation of a gene directly
C. G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
D. the hormone receptor complex moves into the cytoplasm as a unit
C. G protein acts as the link between first and second messengers
Thyroid hormone (a small iodinated amine) enters target cells in a manner similar to _______.

A. insulin, because insulin is a small peptide
B. steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
C. growth hormone, because the thyroid works synergistically with thyroid hormone
D. glucagon, because the structure of glucagon is similar to that of thyroid hormone
B. steroid hormones, because both diffuse easily into target cells
When it becomes necessary to enlist the fight-or-flight response, a hormone that is released during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome is _____.

A. estrogen
B. epinephrine
C. angiotensinogen
D. renin
B. epinephrine
One of the least complicated of the endocrine control systems directly responds to changing blood levels of ions and nutrients. Which of the following describes this mechanism?

A. the rapid oxidation of carbohydrates
B. catabolic inhibition
C. protein synthesis
D. humoral stimulation
D. humoral stimulation
The major targets of growth hormone are ______.

A. the blood vessels
B. the adrenal glands
C. the liver
D. bones and skeletal muscles
D. bones and skeletal muscles
Normal heart sounds are caused by which of the following events?

A. excitation of the SA node
B. closure of the heart valves
C. friction of blood agains the chamber walls
D. opening and closing of the heart valves
B. closure of the heart valves
Which of the events below does not occur when the semilunar valves are open?

A. Ventricles are in diastole
B. Blood enters pulmonary arteries and the aorta
C. AV Valves are closed
D. Ventricles are in systole
A. Ventricles are in diastole
Hemorrage with a loss of blood causes _______.

A. lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
B. a rise in blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
C. no change in blood pressure but a sower heart rate
D. no change in blood pressure but a change in respiration
A. lowering of blood pressure due to change in cardiac output
The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right wall in order to _____.

A. accommodate a greater volume of blood
B. expand the thoracic cage during diastole
C. pump blood with greater pressure
D. pump blood through a smaller valve
C. pump blood with greater pressure
Damage to the __________ is referred to as heart block.

A. SA node
B. AV valves
C. AV budle
D. AV node
B. AV valves
The P wave of a normal electrocardiogram indicates _____.

A. ventricular repolarization
B. ventricular depolarization
C. atrial repolarization
D. atrial depolarization
D. atrial depolarization
Blood within the pulmonary veins returns to the _______.

A. right atrium
B. left atrium
C. right ventricle
D. left ventricle
B. left atrium
Small muscle masses attached to the chordae tendineae are the ______.

A. trabeculae carneae
B. pectinate muscles
C. papillary muscles
D. venae cave
C. papillary muscles
To ausculate the aortic semilunar valve, you would place your stethescope in the ______.
2nd intercostal space to the right of the sternum
Which of the following is not an age related change affecting the heart?
thinning ofthe valve flaps
If cardiac muscle is deprived of its normal blood spply, damage would primarily result from
decreased delivery of oxygen
Norepinephrine acts on the heart by
causing threshold to be reached more quickly
If the vagal nerves to the heart were cur he result would be that____.
The heart rate would increase by about 25 beats per minute
Foramen Ovule _____.
connects the two atria in the fetal heart
The tricuspid valve is closed
when the ventricle is in systole
What is used for measuring percent volume of blood that is RBC's?
Hematocrit
What is te average normal pH range of blood?
7.35 - 7.45
The special type of hemoglobin present in fetal red blood cells is ___?
Hemoglobin F
What is the parent cell for all formed elements?
hemocytoplast
Which blood type is called the universal donor?
O
Which of the following is a regulatory function of blood?

A. - Delivery of oxygen to body cells
B. transport of metabolic wastes from cells
C. prevention of blood loss
D. mainentance of normal pH in body tissues
D - Maintenance of body temperature
Which of the following is a protective function of blood?

A. prevention of blood loss
B. maintenance of adequate fluid volume
C. maintenance of normal pH in body tissue
D. maintenance of body temperature
D - maintenance of body temperature
Which of the statements below is an incorrect or false statement?

A. Transfusion of incompatible blood can be fatal
B. WBC's are the only complete cells in blood
C. Blood is a colloid solution
D. Platelets are cell fragments
C. Blood is a colloid solution is a false statement
Which of the following might trigger erythropoiesis?

A. hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
B. decreased tissue demand for oxgen
C. an increased number of RBC's
D. moving to a lower altitude
A. Hypoxia of EPO-producing cells
What happens as red blood cells age?
membranes "wear out" and the cells become damaged
An individual who is blood type AB negative can ____.

A. receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
B. donate to all blood types in moderate amounts
C. receive types A. B, and AB bu not type O
D. donate to types A, B and AB not no to type O
A. receive any blood type in moderate amounts except that with the Rh antigen
The most abundant plasma protein is ____.
albumn
When neither anti-A nor anti-B sera clot on a blood plate with donor blood, the type is _______.
O
Select the correct statement regarding blood cell formation

A. The main sites of blood cell production in adults are the spleen and the liver.
B. Before the seventh month of fetal development, yellow marrow is the main site of formation
C. Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout adult life,
D, Yellow marrow is the main site of leukocyte formation
C. Red marrow is the main site of blood cell formation throughout life.
Erythropoietin activity can be enhanced by
testosterone
James has a bemoglobin measurement of 16g/100 ml blood. This is _________.

A. above normal
B. normal only if James is an infant
C. abnormally low
D. within the normal range
D. within normal range
Which o these is not a normal plasma protein?

A. fibrinogen
B. gamma globulin
C. thrombolastin
D. albumin
C. thromboplastin
All of the following can b expected with polycythemia except ________.

A. high hematocrit
B. low blood viscosity
C. increased blood volume
D. high blood pressure
B. low blood viscosity
No visible cytoplsmic granules are present in _____.

A. monocytes
B. basophils
C. eosinophils
D. neutrophils
A. monocytes
Which of the following is not a phase of hemostasis?

A. vascular spasm
B. fibrinolysis
C. platelet plug formation
D. coagulation
D. coagulation
How many days does an RBC live?
100-120
A lack of intrinsic factor, leading to a deficiency of vitamin B12 and large pale cells called macrocytes, is characteristic of _.
Pernicious anemia
The slowest step in the clotting process is ________.
formation of prothrombin activator
Thromboembolic disorders ______.

A. result in uncontrolled bleeding
B. include thrombus formation, a clot in a broken blood vessel
C. include embolus formation, a clot moving within he circulatory sytem.
D. are caused by vitamin K deficiency
C. include embolus formation, a clot moving within he circulatory sytem.
Which of the following is not a cause of bleeding disorders?

A. thrombocytopenia, a condition of decreased circulating platelets
B. excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF)
C. a defect in the clotting cascade
D. vitamin K deficiency
B. excess secretion of platelet-derived growth factor (PGDF)
Which of the following is not one of the three main factors influencing blood pressure?

A. cardiac output
B. peripheral resistance
C. emotional state
D. blood volume
C. emotional state
Which of the following chemicals does not help regulate blood pressure?

A. ADH
B. atrial natriuretic peptide
C. angiotensin II
D. nitric acid
D. nitric acid
Which statement best describes arteries?

A. All carry oxygenated blood to the heart.
B. All carry blood away from the heart.
C. All contain valves to prevent the blackflow of blood
D. Only large arteries are lined with endothelium
B. All carry blood away from the heart.
Which tunic of an artery contains endothelium?
tunica intima
Permitting the exchange of nutrients and gases between the blood and tissue cells is the primary function of ____.
capillaries
The circulatory route that runs from the digestive tract to the liver is called _________.
hepatic portal circulation
The arteries that are also called distributing arteries are the ______.
muscular arteries
Aldosterone will ________.

A. promote an increase in blood pressure
B. promote a decrease in blood volume
C. result in larger output of urine
D. decrease sodium reabsorption
A. promote an increase in blood pressure.
The pulse pressure is _________.

A. systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure.
B. systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
C. systolic pressure divided by diastolic pressure
D. diastolic pressure plus 1/3 (systolic pressure plus diastolic pressure)
B. systolic pressure minus diastolic pressure
Which of the following is due to massive blood loss?

A. cardiogenic shock
B. polycythemia
C. increased energy
D. hypovolemic shock
D. hypovolemic shock
Which of the following is likely during vigorous exercise?

A. Blood will be diverted to the digestive organs
B. The skin will be cold and clammy.
C. Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood.
D. Blood flow to the kidneys increases.
C. Capillaries of the active muscles will be engorged with blood
Which of the choices below explains why the arterioles are known as resistance vessels?

A. Their prime function is the exchange of nutrients and wastes between the blood and tissue cells.
B. The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter
C. They distribute blood to various parts of the body
D. They contain a large quantity o elastic tissue
B. The contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in their walls can change their diameter
Which of the following is true about veins?

A. Venous valves are formed from the tunica media
B. Up to 35% of total body blood is in venous irculation at any given time.
C. Veins have a small lumen in relation to the thickness of the vessel wall.
D. Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
D. Veins are called capacitance vessels or blood reservoirs.
Which of the following processes provides a long-term response to changes in blood pressure?

A. neural controls
B. baroreceptor-initiated reflexes
C. chmoreceptor-initiated reflexes
D. renal regulation
B. baroreceptor-initiated reflexes
Peripheral resistance ________.

A. decreases with increasing length of blood vessel
B. increases as blood vessel diameter increases
C. increases as blood viscosity increases
D. is not a major factor in blood pressure in healthy individuals
C. increases as blood viscosity increases
Brain blood flow autoregulation _______.

A. is less sensitive to pH than to a decreased oxygen level.
B. causes constriction of cerebral blood vessels in response to a drop in systemic blood pressure
C. is constant due to the brain not tolerating ischemia
D. is controlled by cardiac centers in the pons
C. is constant due to the brain not tolerating ischemia
Blood flow to the skin _____.

A. is controlled mainly by decreasing pH.
B. increases when environmental temperature rises
C. increases when body temperature drops so that the skin does not freeze
D. is not an important source of nutrients and oxygen for skin cells
B. increases when environmental temperature rises
Which of the choices below reflects the balance (or imbalance) between the direction and amount of fluid that flows across the capillary walls?

A. hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
B. hydrostatic pressure only
C. blood volume and viscosity
D. plasma and formed element concentration
A. hydrostatic and osmotic pressure
Which o the following is a type of circulatory shock?

A. hypovolemic, caused b increased blood volume
B. cardiogenic, which results from any defect in blood vessels
C. vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
D. circulatory, where blood volume is normal and constant
C. vascular, due to extreme vasodilation as a result of loss of vasomotor tone
Which tunic of an artery is most responsible for maintaining blood pressure and continuous blood circulation?
tunica media
The influence of blood vessel diameter on peripheral resistance is ______.

A. the only factor that influences resistance
B. significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
C.insignificant due to cardiac output
D. insignificant because vessel diameter does not vary
B. significant because resistance is inversely proportional to the fourth power of the vessel radius
The form of circulatory shock known as hypovolemic shock is _________.

A. the form of shock caused by anaphylaxis
B. any condition in which blood vessels are inadequately filled and blood cannot circulate normally
C. shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after sever vomiting or diarrhea
D. always fatal
C. shock that results from large-scale loss of blood volume, or after sever vomiting or diarrhea
In the dynamics of blood flow through capillaries, capillary hydrostatic pressure _______.

A. and osmotic pressure are always the same
B. is another name for capillary blood pressure
C. generally forces fluid from the interstitial space into the capillaries
D. is completely canceled out by osmotic pressure
B. is another name for capillary blood pressure
The hepatic portal vein ______.

A. is actually an artery
B. carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
C. carries oxygen-rich blood from the liver to the viscera
D. carries blood from the liver to the inferior vena cava
B. carries nutrient-rich blood to the liver
The term ductus venosus refers to ______.

A. a fetal shunt that bypasses the lungs
B. damage to the valves in the veins, leading to varicose veins
C. a condition of the aged in which the arteries lose elasticity
D. a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver
D. a special fetal vessel that allows umbilical blood to bypass the liver
Once interstitial fluid passes in to the lymphatic vessels it becomes ____.
Lymph
What is a characteristic of antibodies?
composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Small organs associated with lymphatic vessels are termed ________.
lymph nodes
What are functional processes performed by the respiratory system?
pulmonary ventilation, transport of respiratory gases, external respiration
The loudness of a person's voice depends on the _______.
force with which air rushes across the vocal folds
Which of the following is not a type of T cell?

A. cytotoxic
B. antigenic
C. helper
D. regulatory
B. antigenic
Which of the following would NOT be classified as a lymphatic structure?

A. pancreas
B. spleen
C. tonsils
D. Peyer's patches of the intestine
A. Pancreas
What maintains the patency (openness) of the trachea?
cartilage rings
Intrapulmonary pressure is the _______.
pressure within the alveoli of the lungs
The relationship between the pressure and volume of gases is given by ______ law.
Boyle's
The statement, "in a mixture of gases, the total pressure is the sum of the individual partial pressures of gases in the mixture" paraphrases _______ law.
Dalton's
The distal portion of he small intestine contains clumps of lymph follicles called ____.
Peyer's patches
The thymus is most active during ____.
Childhood
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due t oa local hyperemia caused by ________.
vasodilation
Which of the following statements regarding NK cells is a false statement?

A. NK cells are a type of neutrophil
B. NK cells are present in the blood, spleen, lymph nodes, and red bone marrow.
C. NK cells attack cells that display abnormal MHC antigens
D. NK cells attack cancer cells and virus-infected body cells
A. NK cells are a type of neutrophil
What is t correct sequence of events in phagocytosis?
adherence, ingestion, lysis, digestion, exocytosis
Surfactant helps to prevent the alveoli from collapsing by _______.
interfering with the cohesiveness of water molecules, thereby reducing the surface tension of alveolar fluid
Which lymphatic structure drains lymph from the right upper limb and the right side of the head and thorax?
right lymphatic duct
What effect does age have on the size of the thymus?
The thymus initially increases in size and then decreases in size from adolescence through old age
The most common tonsils to be removed surgically are the _________.
Palatine
Which of the following statements is INCORRECT?

A. During fetal life, lungs are filled with fluid
B. Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants
C. Descent of the diaphragm results in abdominal breathing
D. The chest wall becomes more rigid with age
B. Respiratory rate is lowest in newborn infants
The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the ______.
cytotoxic cells
Interferons _________.
interfere with viral replication within cells
Which of the following is NOT a form of lung cancer?

A. adenocarcinoma
B. Kaposi's sarcoma
C. small cell carcinoma
D. squamous cell carcinoma
B. Karpsi's sarcoma
Tidal volume is air ______.
exchanged during normal breathing
The lymphatic capillaries are _________.
more permeable than blood capillaries
Lymph leaves a lymph node via ______.
efferent lymphatic vessels
The lung volume that represents the total volume of exchangeable air is the ____.
vital capacity
Because the lungs are filled with fluid during fetal life, which of the following statements is true regarding respiratory exchange?

A. Respiratory exchanges are made through the ductus arteriosus
B. Respiratory exchanges are not necessary
C. Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
D. Because the lungs develop later in gestation, fetuses do not need a mechanism for respiratory exchange
C. Respiratory exchanges are made through the placenta
What are Isografts?
Tissue grafts between identical twins
Respiratory control centers are located in the ______.
medulla and pons
Select the correct statement about lymph transport.

A. Under normal conditions, lymph vessels are very high-pressure conduits
B. Lymph transport is faster than that occurring in the veins.
C. Lymph transport is only necessary when illness causes tissue swelling
D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
D. Lymph transport depends on the movement of adjacent tissues, such as skeletal muscles
Lymphoid tissue that appears as a swelling of the mucosa in the oral cavity is called a(n).
tonsil
The amount of air that can be inspired above the tidal volume is called _____.
inspiratory reserve
Which respiratory-associated muscles would contract if you were to bow up a balloon?
internal inercostals and abdominal muscles would contract
Which of the following is NOT found on the right lobe of the lung?

A. middle lobe
B. cardiac notch
C. horizontal fissure
D. oblique fissure
B. cardiac notch
What is a bubo?
an infected lymph node
Complement proteins and antibodies coat a microorganism and provide binding sites, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytize the organism. This phenomenon is termed _______.
opsonization
What cell is the most critical cell in immunity?
helper T cell
Large clusters of lymph nodes occur in all of the following locations except the ________.

A. inguinal region
B. cervical region
C. axillary region
D. lower extremities
D. lower extremities
Which of the following provides the greatest surface area for gas exchange?

A. lung hilum
B. alveoli
C. respiratory bronchioles
D. alveolar ducts
B. alveoli
Inspiratory capacity is _____.
the total amount of air that can be inspired after a tidal expiration
The left lung has _____ lobes?
Two
Most inspired particles such as dust fail to reach the lungs because of the ________.
ciliated mucous lining in the nose
Which of the following is NOT a method that maintains lymph flow?

A. skeletal muscle contraction
B. breathing
C. valves in lymph vessel walls
D. smooth muscle contraction
D. smooth muscle contraction
The tonsils located at the base of the tongue are the _____.
lingual tonsils
Which of the disorders below is characterized by destruction of the walls o the alveoli producing abnormally large air spaces that remain flled with air durin exhalation?

A. pneumonia
B. tuberculosis
C. emphysema
D. coryza
C. emphysema
Each hemoglobin is able to bind with ___ oxygen molecules at one time.
four
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

A. multiple sclerosis
B. type II diabetes
C. systemic lupus erythematosus
D. glomerulonephritis
B. type II diabetes
Which disease process is named the most common lethal genetic disease in North America?

A. Tuberculosis
B. Asthma
C. Cystic Fibrosis
D. Emphysema
C. Cystic Fibrosis