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Terms in this set (98)
What is alcohol?
a group of organic chemicals in which one or more hydroxyl groups are attached to the carbon atoms in place of the hydrogen atoms
What is ethanol?
ethyl alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages
Is ethanol considered safe for consumption?
yes, but not in excess
What is glycerol?
it is found in food and in the body as part of the triglyceride molecule
What is methanol?
anitfreeze, a poison
What is isopropanol?
rubbing alcohol, a poison
How many carbons and hydroxyl groups does ethanol have?
2 carbons and 1 hydroxyl group
How many carbons and hydroxyl groups does glycerol have?
3 carbons and 3 hydroxyl groups
How many carbons and hydroxyl groups does methanol have?
1 carbon and 1 hydroxyl group
How is sugar converted to alcohol?
fermentation of natural sugars in grains (glucose and maltose) and fruits (glucose and fructose) by yeasts
What does yeast metabolize glucose into?
ethanol and carbon dioxide
When does fermentation stop?
when the alcohol content reaches the level the yeast can tolerate, 11 to 14 percent
What happens to the carbon dioxide during fermentation?
it bubbles off
What is left after the carbon dioxide bubbles off during fermentation?
alcohol-containing beverage is left
What is wine and beer made from?
wine is made from grapes and beer is made from malted cereal grains known as barley
What does distillation do?
it forms liquors
What happens during distillation?
the fermented liquid is heated and ethanol vaporizes
What happens after the ethanol vaporizes during distillation?
it is collected and forms liquor
Alcohol content is indicated by what?
proof, 80 proof contains 40 percent of alcohol
Is alcohol needed for survival?
no, it provides very little nutrition other than kilocalories
Why do people drink?
social, historical, relaxation, adulthood and advertising
Is alcohol a drug?
yes, it alters the conscious mind
What happens within minutes of sipping alcohol?
a person feels more relaxed
What happens after a few more sips of alcohol?
mild, pleasant euphoria sets in and inhibitions begin to loosen
What is moderate drinking?
the amount of alcohol that puts individuals at the lowest risk for alcohol-related problems
How many drinks should males consume a day for it to be considered moderate drinking?
How many drinks should females consume a day for it to be considered moderate drinking?
What is a standard drink defined as?
12 oz of beer, 5 oz of wine, 1.5 oz of liquor
Does moderate alcohol consumption have health benefits?
maybe, but it is inconclusive
How does red wine promote heart health?
may reduce the accumulation of oxidized LDL on the arterial walls, may inhibit the stickiness of platelets in the blood, and may increase HDLs
What do some studies show about alcohol and red wine?
that alcohol, not compounds in the red wine, promote health benefits
What ages, male and female, does moderate alcohol seem to benefit?
males older than 45 and females older than 55
What enzyme breaks down ethanol and what does it break it down into?
alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde
What does acetaladehyde cause?
some of the toxicity of alcohol
What enzyme further breaks down acetalaldehyde and what does it break it down into?
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and acetate
Where is most of the alcohol absorbed?
the duodenum of the small intestine
Where is the majority of alcohol metabolized?
What happens to the alcohol that is not metabolized?
it will circulate through the body, including the brain
Where else is alcohol absorbed other than the small intestine?
Does alcohol require digestion and how is it absorbed?
no and by simple diffusion through the gastric mucosa
Where is some alcohol metabolized?
What affects the rate at which alcohol is metabolized?
by how quickly the stomach empties into the duodenum
What happens if the alcohol is in the stomach longer?
it takes more time to metabolize, which means that less alcohol goes to the blood and the brain
What does a partially full or full stomach keeps alcohol away from?
What do fatty food do during alcohol consumption?
What do carbohydrates do during alcohol consumption?
slows absorption through the stomach lining
Who feels the narcotic effect of alcohol sooner, men or women?
What happens to ADH with aging when it comes to females and males?
ADH declines as males age and ADH increases as females age
Is it true that some ethnic groups feel the effects of alcohol more readily than others?
What is the main site of alcohol metabolism?
What is the amount of alcohol that can be metabolized per hour limited by?
body mass and liver size
What are the two pathways in which alcohol is metabolized through?
alcohol dehydrogenase pathway (ADH) and microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)
What are the steps of the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway (ADH)?
ADH and NAD remove hydrogens from alcohol to form acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) removes more hydrogen and forms acetate
Once acetate is formed, what does it do?
it continues through metabolic pathways to form energy or is converted to a fatty acid and stored as fat
How many carbons does acetate have and what is it handled like?
2 carbons and like a fatty acid
When is MEOS used?
when there is too much alcohol and the liver enzymes cannot keep up
What does chronic alcohol abuse increase?
the number of enzymes in the MEOS pathway
What else is MEOS used for?
metabolize drugs and other foreign compounds
What does alcohol take precedence over and what does this mean?
drugs and it means that the drugs won't be metabolized correctly
When alcohol and drugs are taken together, what can it cause?
lethal doses of drugs in the blood
Does the MEOS and ADH pathways occur simultaneously?
Where does alcohol remain if the liver cannot metabolize it as fast as it is consumed?
in the blood
What percentage of of alcohol consumed is metabolized by the liver?
What happens to the other 5 percent of alcohol that is not metabolized in the liver?
it is excreted through the lungs, skin, and/or kidneys through the urine
What does the amount of alcohol expelled through the lungs correlate with?
with the amount of alcohol in the blood
What is blood alcohol concentration (BAC)?
the amount of alcohol in the blood
How is BAC measured and how is it expressed?
in grams of alcohol per deciliter of blood, in percentage
How does alcohol affect the brain?
it is a depressant of the central nervous system, slowing communication between neurons
How does alcohol affect the cerebral cortex?
individuals become more talkative, less inhibited and has more confidence
How does alcohol affect the hippocampus?
prevents short-term memories from becoming long-term memories, blacking out may occur
How does alcohol affect the cerebellum?
individual loses ability to walk in a straight line
How does alcohol affect the brain stem?
impaired breathing and irregular heart rate can occur
How can alcohol be harmful?
production of acid and acetaldehyde can harm the body and brain and these effects can be short term and long term
Does over-consumption of alcohol lead to sleep disruption and what does this mean?
yes and having a drink before bed can disrupt the sleep cycle, causing individuals to wake up in the middle of the night and making falling asleep difficult
When does a hangover begin?
within hours of the last drink as BAC begins to drop
How long do symptoms of a hangover last?
they can last up to 24 hours after alcohol has left the blood
How does alcohol cause the symptoms of hangovers?
large amounts of acetaldehyde are produced, dehydration and electrolyte imbalances occur, and it contains congeners (i.e. sulfur)
What is alcohol abuse?
when a person allows alcohol to interfere socially, legally, and healthwise in his or her life
What is binge drinking, when it comes to females and males?
for males it is more than 5 drinks in a short time and for females it is more than 4 drinks in a short time
What is the legal BAC limit in the United States when it comes to driving?
What is the average age of the first drink for Americans and what can alcohol interfere with in this age group?
14 and brain development and can lead to permanent cognitive and memory damage in teens
What is alcoholism?
a disease known as alcohol dependence
What are the four classic symptoms of alcoholism?
craving alcohol, higher tolerance for alcohol, can't control limit or intake once drinking starts, developed dependency on alchol
What are the risk factors for developing alcoholism?
50 percent genetic, home life, social pressures, drinking habits of those around you, access to alcohol
Is there a cure for alcoholism and what does treatment include?
no and it includes physical and psychological approaches
Chronic alcohol abuse can cause impaired digestion and absorption, what does this mean?
digestive enzymes are decreased and the alcohol interferes with fat digestion and fat-soluble vitamin transport
What are the three types of malnutrition that can occur with chronic alcohol abuse?
primary, wernicke-korsakoff syndrome, and secondary
What is primary malnutrition?
individuals compensate for drinking by cutting out nutritious foods
What is wernicke-korsakoff syndrome?
mental confusion and uncontrolled muscle movement due to thiamin deficiency's effect on brain function
What does secondary malnutrition cause?
interference with nutrient metabolism
How many kilocalories per gram does alcohol contain and what type of alcohol is very high in kilocalories?
7 and mixed drinks
What hormones can alcohol interact with?
insulin, glucagon, parathyroid and other bone-strengthening hormones, estrogen, reproductive hormones
How does alcohol interact with estrogen and the reproductive hormones?
it increases estrogen levels and possible increased risk for breast cancer; associated with male and female dysfunction and infertility
What are the three stages of alcohol liver disease?
fatty liver, alcohol hepatitis, cirrhosis
Which stages of alcohol liver disease are reversible?
fatty liver and alcohol hepatitis
What can an increased level of NADH cause?
increase of fat
What are cytokines and what do they do?
proteins that play a role in the inflammation of the liver
What is red wine known to have in it that may be beneficial to health when it comes to prevention of cardiovascular disease?
resveratrol, which is found in the skin of the grapes
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