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The solid part of the Earth, it is made up of the crust and upper mantle.

Cinder Cone

A type of volcano that is small with steep sides and violent eruptions of mostly cinder and ash.

Shield Cone

A type of volcano that has a wide base and fairly steep sides. Eruptions are quieter and tend to have gentle lava flows.

Composite Cone

This is the most dangerous type of volcano because it is so unpredictable. Eruptions can be either quiet and gentle or very explosive.


Hot liquid rock under the Earth's surface.


Hot liquid rock above the Earth's surface.


A scientist that studies volcanoes.

Hot Spot Volcano

A volcano that forms when a tectonic plate moves slowly over an area of hot magma that pushes up through the crust.


A classification of volcanoes that erupt almost constantly.


A classification of volcanoes that are considered to be sleeping. They have not erupted in a long time, but could erupt in the future


A classification of volcanoes that erupt for awhile and then stop for a period of time before erupting again.


An opening of a volcano. Lava, dust, ash, and gases come out of it.


A mountain formed from lava flowing through an opening in the Earth's crust.

Dangers of a volcano

Lava flow, poisonous gases,dust & ash, mudslides, and earthquakes

Benefits of a volcano

New land, rich farmland, deposits of minerals and metals, natural beauty, knowledge of the Earth

Dust & ash

Can effect weather patterns by blocking out the sun which decrease temperatures and increases rainfall.

Focus (hypocenter)

The starting point of an earthquake.

Hypocenter (focus)

The starting point of an earthquake.


The location on the Earth's surface that is directly above the focus. It is the area hardest hit by the earthquake.

Seismic waves

The vibrations or energy from an earthquake that travels away from the focus in all directions. The reason why earthquakes are so destructive.


The machine used to measure the movement or shaking of the lithosphere.


A scientist that studies earthquakes.


The sudden shaking of the lithosphere, often times caused by tectonic plate movement.


A fairly small earthquake.

Richter Scale

Used to determine the magnitude of an earthquake. Numbers are from 1 to 10, 10 being the strongest earthquake.


Small earthquakes that take place after the strongest quake hits. It is caused by the settling of the rock in the lithosphere.

San Andreas fault

A famous fault located in California caused by a transform fault boundary.


A large destructive wave caused by an underwater earthquake.

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