Personal Fitness Unit 4
Cardiovascular Fitness and Muscular Fitness
Terms in this set (114)
What is the number one cause of death in the United States?
What percentage of deaths by cardiovascular disease could have been prevented with a lifestyle change?
over half 50%
How many risk factors do we control out of the 9 associated with cardiovascular disease?
caused by pressure of blood on an artery wall; corresponds to heart beat
Resting heart rate
heart rate just after waking in the morning, before getting out of bed
Recovery heart rate
heart rate after exercise
measure of blood force against the walls of the arteries
condition in which fatty deposits build up on inner walls of arteries, causing narrowing of the arterial passageway
Maximum heart rate
heart rate that should not be exceeded during exercise; found by subtracting one's age from 220
Target heart rate
60-90% of the maximum heart rate; results in greatest cardiovascular benefits from exercise
"with oxygen;" term refers to energy producing biochemical pathways in cells that do not require oxygen to produce energy
Why is cardiovascular fitness important?
increases energy level
ability to provide oxygen continuously to working muscles over an extended time
what do aerobic activities involve?
rhythmic use of large muscle groups over a prolonged period of time
What type of activities are most effective at developing cardiorespiratory fitness? (aerobic or anaerobic)
Applying the principle of overload to cardiorespiratory fitness.
F- at least 3-5/ week
I- low intensity, long duration exercise sessions, as well as higher intensity, shorter duration sessions
T- between 20-60 minutes of aerobic activity/session
Applying the principle of progression to cardiorespiratory fitness
run or walk a longer distance
run or walk same distance faster
swim more laps
swim sam # of laps faster
push yourself harder
increase # of days you work out
Applying the principle of specificity ot cardiorespiratory fitness
participate in activities that condition the heart,circulatory system and lungs
Examples of aerobic activities
aerobic exercise to music
cross-country skiing and bicycling
To achieve a cardiorespiratory training effect, your heart rate must reach what?
target heart rate
How do you find your target heart rate?
lower limit: 60% of heart rate reserve
upper limit: 85% of heart rate reserve
How do you find training zone?
Add the resting heart rate to each of the target heart rates.
The warm-up activity should relate to the exercise you are going to do
Use low intensity large muscle activity, then stretch the muscles to be used
Heart rate should gradually increase
Temperature within muscles increases
Chances of muscle soreness and injury are reduced
Allows the body to gradually return to its starting point
Gradually decrease your pace of exercise until the pulse rate lowers to about 100-120 beats/min (prevents possible pooling of blood)
Include the same stretching exercises you performed in the warm up
The exercise session consists of...
Warm-up: 10-15 min
Selected program: 20-30 min
cool down: 5-10 min
muscle toning: 10-12 min
What types of people are still encouraged to seek the highest possible level of cardiorespiratory fitness?
people who have special needs due to illness, disability or temporary disabling conditions
Which students should seek the advice of a doctor before developing a cardiorespiratory fitness plan?
Students with special needs
Examples of programs.
walking, interval walking, jogging, interval training, cycling, rope jumping water activities, water exercise, lap swimming, aerobic exercise to music, low impact aerobics, step aerobics, in-line skating, spinning, rowing, team sports
What is a synonym for the circulatory system?
Where in your body can you find blood vessels?
To which part of a car is the heart most similar?
What type of tissue in the heart pumps blood throughout the body?
How does pulmonary circulation differ from coronary circulation?
Coronary circulation occurs in the heart; pulmonary circulation occurs in the heart and lungs
What can you infer about carbon dioxide from the fact that your body needs to breathe it out?
It can be harmful if it builds up in the bloodstream
How does your body acquire the oxygen the cells in your body need to function?
What part of the circulatory system is responsible both for disposing of cellular waste and providing cellular fuel?
Through which type of circulation does blood flow to your hands and feet?
What would happen if your circulatory system did not deliver oxygen to your body's cells?
Your body's cells would shut down
Can your body store oxygen?
What can you infer about the function of the ribcage?
It protects the lungs
Place the following events in sequence: A) Air pressure inside your lungs drops; B) The diaphragm contracts; C) Air from outside rushes into your lungs
What word best describes the function of the trachea?
Where does the transfer of oxygen into the bloodstream take place?
In the alveoli
What do capillaries have in common with veins and arteries?
They are all types of blood vessels
The walls of the alveoli and capillaries are permeable. What does this mean?
Substances can pass through them
What term best describes the role of carbon dioxide in the human body?
What do lung cancer and emphysema have in common?
They are both caused by smoking
What happens when your diaphragm relaxes and moves upward?
Your lungs deflate and you breathe out
What are some benefits of having cardiorespiratory fitness?
Decrease your risk of premature death from cardiovascular disease
What are some components of the heart?
carry blood away from the heart
these are the smallest blood vessels; where the oxygen and nutrients are exchanged for carbon dioxide and waste products
the vessels that carry blood back to the heart
The respiratory system contains...
What can low levels of cardiorespiratory fitness lead to?
coronary artery disease
peripheral vascular disease
What do anaerobic activities involve?
sudden, intensive, explosive muscle contraction and can play a role in cardiorespiratory fitness
What are some examples of anaerobic activities?
What are some benefits of physical activity?
Heart becomes larger and stronger
increase in the formation of capillaries
decrease in recovery time after exercise
increase in total blood volume and red blood cells
What are some uncontrollable risk factors?
What are some controllable risk factors for cardiovascular disease?
blood lipids(fats, triglycerifes, cholesterol)
lack of physical activity
The pulmonary pump, systemic pump, atria, ventricles, septum, aorta and coronary arteries are all parts of the...
Which vessels carry blood back to the heart?
How is the heart different from the other muscles in your body?
It never gets tired
What substance is in the blood that the heart pumps throughout your body?
What is the main difference between your ventricles and your atria?
Your atria bring blood into the heart; your ventricles pump it out
Place the following events in sequence: A) the atria fill with blood; B) The valve between the ventricles and atria close; C) Blood is pushed out the heart
A, B, C
Which body part is roughly the same size as your heart?
What happens after old blood, which has already circulated through the body, moves into the heart?
The old blood travels to the lungs for more oxygen
What role does your brain play in the circulation of blood through your body?
It signals the heart to beat
What word best describes the beating of the heart and the circulation of blood?
What can you infer from the fact that your heart beats faster when you exercise?
When you exercise, your muscles need more oxygen
how long does it take for your heart to pump blood through your entire body?
About a minute
What is the heart rate affected by?
Systolic blood pressure
pressure when pumping
Diastolic blood pressure
pressure when relaxed
What are some cardiovascular diseases?
What are some cardiovascular benefits?
Reduces the risk of dying prematurely
Strengthens heart, makes more efficient
Clears fats from bloodstream
Helps control weight
Promotes positive self-concept
Reduces feelings of depression and anxiety
When you increase the pace of your run, you are increasing?
Which of the following is an appropriate cardiovascular fitness training activity?
In order for jogging to contribute toward the development of cardiovascular fitness, your target heart rate must be maintained for at least...
What is the minimum number of days a person would exercise to improve cardiovascular fitness?
Your friend, who is age 15, wishes to start a jogging program. Using a percentage of maximal heart rate, what would you suggest as a proper starting target heart rate?
the wasting away or decrease in size of a body part, particularly muscle; condition in which the muscle fibers become smaller in diameter due to lack of use
red muscle fibers that are slow to contract but have the ability to continue contracting for long periods of time
muscle fibers that possess a combination of the fast and slow-twitch fiber characteristics
white muscle fibers that contract quicly
exercises in which one contracts muscles but does not move body parts; force is against stationary object; contract without changing length; least effective for strength or endurance
exercises in which a muscle lengthens and shortens through its full range of movement while lowering and raising a resistance; weight is moved through a range of motion; lengthen and shorten through full range of motion; excellent for developing muscular fitness
exercises with special machines that allow for the maximum resistance over the complete rang of motion; overload muscle through entire ROM at a constant speed with maximum resistance
the completion of a single, full-range movement of the body part being exercised
working against a farce which may be in the form of a barbell or your own body weight
a group of repetitions performed one after the other
What are the components of muscular fitness?
maximum force against a resistance 1 time
repeating movement over a period of time
Why is muscular fitness important?
amount of force that can be exerted by a single contraction of the muscle
ability of a muscle group to continue muscle movements over a length of time
Benefits of muscular fitness
reduce risk of muscle injury
increase capacity to perform daily activities and tasks by reducing fatigue
helps reduce bone and muscle loss as you age
Inadequate muscular fitness leads to
low back pain
abnormal movement due to muscular imbalance
poor posture due to muscular weakness
inability to function effectively on a daily basis
resistance to fatigue
The muscle is made of?
ligament, tendon, cartilage, slow-twitch muscle fiber and fast-twitch muscle fiber
enlargement of the diameter of the muscle figber
shortening (pull ups, curl ups, and lifting weights)
lengthening (lowering your body during a chin up)
placing one hand against another and pushing hard
Effects of exercise
The size of the muscle temporarily increases as the blood flow to it increases
The body temperature increases due to the increased activity in the muscle tissue
The raised temperature causes the muscles to become more flexible and therefore able to contract more easily and at a faster rate
Applying the principle of overload to muscular fitness
F- every other day
strength: 60-90% of max lift
endurance: 30-50% of max lift
T-Repetition: # of times exercise is performed
Set: group of reptitions
Applying the principle of progression to muscular fitness
Strength: 4-8 reps/set
Endurance: more reps less weight
Applying the principle of specificity to muscular fitness
isolate specific muscles
Weight Training considerations
Focus on endurance at beginning
Dry your hands
Exhale when lifting, inhale when lowering
Always use proper form
Keep weight close to the body
Space feet shoulder-width apart
Keep proper back and hip alignment
Complete the full ROM for flexibility
Work large muscles groups first
Work muscles on both sides of a joint
Lift on a count of 2, lower on 4
You should hold your breath when lifting the weight and breathe in when lowering it. (true or false)
The person with more muscle looks trimmer because muscle is more dense than fat, thus taking up less space than fat. (true or false)
The difference in muscular strength and muscular endurance training is in the amount and number of times a weight is lifted. (true or false)
Females do not develop bulging muscles or experience muscle definition as males do because of testosterone, which is the female primary sex hormone. (true or false)
Isometric exercises are recommended for an older person or those with high blood pressure, since they involve no heavy lifting. (true or false)
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