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2014 Earth Science Regents Review
Terms in this set (90)
The terrestrial planets differ from the Jovian planets because the terrestrial planets are (more/less) dense and (larger/smaller).
More dense and larger.
Energy is produced within a star's core by the process of _____ _____.
What are the ocean tides observed at coastal locations each day primarily caused by?
The gravitational attraction between the Moon and Earth.
If Earth's rate of rotation increases the length of one Earth day will be...?
Shorter than 24 hours.
What is the usual surface wind pattern within a Northern Hemisphere low-pressure system?
Counterclockwise and inward.
What do monsoons develop as a result of?
Large changes between the temperatures of a continent and neighboring oceans.
Which scientific principle states that younger rock layers are generally deposited on top of older rock layers?
Pieces of bedrock material that are broken from a cliff and deposited by a landslide at the base of a cliff are best described as (rounded/angular) and (sorted/unsorted).
Angular and unsorted
The narrow, sandy, barrier islands in the ocean along the south coast of Long Island were deposited by ____ ______.
Why are some constellations are NOT seen during all four seasons?
The Earth revolves around the sun.
A red shift in the light from very distant galaxies suggest that the universe is ______.
What motion causes the Coriolis Effect?
The rotation of Earth on its axis.
Most tornadoes in the Northern Hemisphere are best described as violently rotating columns of air surrounded by (clockwise/counterclockwise) surface winds moving (toward/away) from the columns.
Counterclockwise and moving towards.
During a rainstorm when soil becomes saturated, what happens to the amount of infiltration?
Infiltration increases and runoff decreases.
Water seeping into the ground.
Why is it that sediment is deposited as a river enters a lake?
The velocity of the river decreases
Stream drainage patterns that develop in a landscape region are controlled mostly by _____ _____.
What's the sequence of events that affects moist air within Earth's atmosphere which causes cloud formation?
Rising > Expanding > Cooling > Condensation
The Earth surface that best absorbs short-wave solar radiation has which characteristics?
Black & rough.
Which process requires the addition of energy to water?
1) Vaporization of water
2) Freezing of water
3) Condensation of water
4) Cooling of water
#1 - Vaporization of water
The weather conditions prevailing in an area in general or over a long period of time.
The cleaning of trees; transforming a forest into clear land.
To use up the supply or resources.
The trapping of the sun's warmth in a planet's lower atmosphere due to the greater transparency of the atmosphere.
A change in atmospheric conditions caused by a change in elevation, primarily due to
What is a mineral?
A naturally occurring, inorganic substance which had a definite chemical composition.
What causes minerals to have different physical properties?
The internal arrangement of atoms within the material. It's called the atomic structure.
What is the streak of a mineral?
The color of its powder when rubbed on white tile. It's not always the same color of the rock. While the rock color may vary, the streak never will.
What is the luster of a mineral?
It refers to the way a mineral shines in reflected light. Metallic luster looks like metal, while nonmetallic is dull.
What does a metallic mineral look like?
Looks like metal; shiny
What does a nonmetallic mineral look like?
What does it mean when a mineral is cleavage?
•It splits easily/separates along flat surfaces.
•Parallel or steps.
•Mica splits into sheets.
What does it mean when a mineral is fracture?
Minerals break unevenly—usually rough.
What does the hardness of a mineral determine?
Its resistance to being scratched.
What is the hardness of glass?
What is the hardness of a fingernail?
What is the hardness of a penny?
What type of moon occurs during a spring tide?
Full and new moons.
What type of moon occurs during neap tides?
The planet's speed and velocity is greatest when it's ________.
Near the sun.
Are terrestial planets are closer or farther from the sun?
Closer to the sun
Are gas/Jovian planets closer or farther from the sun?
What are the Jovian/gas planets?
What are the terrestrial planets?
What is the eccentricity of a perfect circle?
The less circular a planet is, the (higher/lower) the volume.
Solar eclipses occur when the ___ is blocked by the ___.
Sun is blocked by the Moon.
**There must be a new moon for this to occur.
A lunar eclipse occurs when the ___ is blocked by the ____.
Moon is blocked by the Sun.
**There must be a full moon for this to occur.
What type of moon is this: 🌑?
What type of moon is this: 🌒?
What type of moon is this: 🌓?
1st/3rd quarter; half moon.
What type of moon is this: 🌔?
What type of moon is this: 🌘?
What type of moon is this: 🌖?
What type of moon is this: 🌕?
Oxygen and silicon combine to form compounds called ________.
One mineral—the rock.
Made of two or more minerals.
Most sedimentary rocks are made of pieces (_____) of other rocks.
Name two processes that form sedimentary rocks.
1. Chemical Action - Water containing dissolved minerals that may evaporate, leaving mineral deposits.
2. Compaction & cementation.
In what type of environment are most sedimentary rocks formed?
A clear layering of sediments.
Pieces of other rocks.
Remains of once living organisms.
How are igneous rocks formed?
By hot liquid rock which cools and solidifies.
Name two places where igneous rocks form.
Volcanoes and rifts/ridges.
What determines the crystal size in igneous rocks?
The cooling time.
Large crystals indicate a (long/short) cooling time.
Small/No crystals indicate a (long/short) cooling time.
What's the texture of an extrusive/volcanic igneous rock?
Glassy or fine
What is the texture of an intrusive/plutonic igneous rock?
A glassy, igneous rock will usually appear _____.
Interlocking Crystals (igneous)
The grains have been melted and are now physically connected.
How are metamorphic rocks formed?
Extreme heat and pressure.
•Transforms older rocks into metamorphic rocks
•Occurs over large areas by increased temperature & pressure.
•Adjacent to igneous intrusions.
•Classified by texture.
•Intense heat and pressure.
What is the name of the galaxy we live in?
Milky Way Galaxy
What type of galaxy do we live in?
What season has the greatest angle of insolation?
What season has the longest noon shadow?
What season had the shortest noon shadow?
What season has the lowest angle of insolation?
The more elliptical an ellipse gets, what happens to the eccentricity?
It gets flatter (1).
Low eccentricity is what shape orbit—round or oval?
What is the process of the formation of a clastic rock?
Compaction & cementation
The Earth rotates in what direction?
Counterclockwise (East to West)
How many degrees does the Earth rotate each hour?
What does foliation mean?
The density will _______ at a given temperature, even when the mass or volume has changed.
Remain the same
What's the formula for percent deviation?
Difference from accepted value/Accepted value • 100
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