Chapter 12 Test - DNA and RNA

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copying the code from DNA onto mRNA


three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid


process by which a ribosome uses the code on mRNA to make proteins


DNA that is coiled around proteins

amino acid

building block of a protein


type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome


chain of amino acids


process in which DNA is duplicated


type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome


a change or error in the DNA sequence


type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome


nucleic acid that transmits hereditary information


section of DNA that codes for a protein


tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division

point mutation

change in a single nucleotide

frameshift mutation

mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide


physical characteristics of an organism due to proteins


protein that speeds up chemical reactions

nucleic acid

biological macromolecule that stores genetic information; made of nucleotides


organic molecule that makes up cell structures and controls chemical reactions

double helix

twisted ladder shape of DNA


building block of a nucleic acid


5-carbon sugar in DNA


5-carbon sugar in RNA

base pairing

principle that bonds in DNA can form only between A and T, and C and G


cell structure that makes proteins

DNA polymerase

enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule


enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication

hydrogen bond

type of bond that holds two strands of DNA together (between nitrogen bases)

nitrogen base

part of a nucleotide (A, T, C, G, U) that makes the code

Chargaff's rules

%A=%T; %G=%C in DNA


strand of DNA whose sequence of bases can pair another DNA strand

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