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Chapter 12 Test - DNA and RNA

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transcription
copying the code from DNA onto mRNA
codon
three mRNA nucleotides that code for a specific amino acid
translation
process by which a ribosome uses the code on mRNA to make proteins
chromatin
DNA that is coiled around proteins
amino acid
building block of a protein
mRNA
type of RNA that carries instructions from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome
polypeptide
chain of amino acids
replication
process in which DNA is duplicated
rRNA
type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
mutation
a change or error in the DNA sequence
tRNA
type of RNA that carries amino acids to the ribosome
DNA
nucleic acid that transmits hereditary information
gene
section of DNA that codes for a protein
chromosome
tightly coiled chromatin; visible during cell division
point mutation
change in a single nucleotide
frameshift mutation
mutation that shifts the "reading" frame of the genetic message by inserting or deleting a nucleotide
phenotype
physical characteristics of an organism due to proteins
enzyme
protein that speeds up chemical reactions
nucleic acid
biological macromolecule that stores genetic information; made of nucleotides
protein
organic molecule that makes up cell structures and controls chemical reactions
double helix
twisted ladder shape of DNA
nucleotide
building block of a nucleic acid
deoxyribose
5-carbon sugar in DNA
ribose
5-carbon sugar in RNA
base pairing
principle that bonds in DNA can form only between A and T, and C and G
ribosome
cell structure that makes proteins
DNA polymerase
enzyme involved in DNA replication that joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
helicase
enzyme that unwinds the double helix of DNA and separates the DNA strands in preparation for DNA replication
hydrogen bond
type of bond that holds two strands of DNA together (between nitrogen bases)
nitrogen base
part of a nucleotide (A, T, C, G, U) that makes the code
Chargaff's rules
%A=%T; %G=%C in DNA
complementary
strand of DNA whose sequence of bases can pair another DNA strand