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Terms in this set (62)
Name 2 London Based trios formed in 1966
Cream, The Jimi Hendrix Experience
Who were the lead Guitarists for each of the London Based Trios?
Eric Clapton; Jimi Hendrix
Why was Jimi Hendrix considered a British Invasion artist in reverse?
Became famous in London "psychcadellic scene" but was American- achieved success after 1967 Montery Pop Festival
What is distinctive about Hendrix's guitar style? How does he achieve this unique sound?
Use of Wah Wah pedal. Experimented w/ feedback and distortion
What styles did Cream combine in their music?
Blues, Psychadellic rock, and avant garde Jazz.
Why were the 1970s referred to as the "me decade"?
Term coined by Tom Wolfe in NY magazine. Describing new American preoccupation with self-awareness; Political activism was popular;
What economic and political issues were affecting the US at the turn of the decade?
Oil Crisis; Nixon Resignation;
How does corporate consolidation of the record industry affect the music being produced at this time?
Smaller industries swallowed by music industry giants.
Industry giant: Columbia Records
Pop music becomes "Big Business"
Record sales reach $2 Bil in 1973
Lawyers and accountants replace producers as head of record labels.
What does the following quote (Morse, 1971) tell us about the changing face of rock music in the 1970s? "Black musicians are now implicitly regarded as precursors who, having taught the white men all they know, must gradually recede into the distance."
Black audiences were losing interest in rock music because no African American performers were going mainstream or getting recognition.
How did FM radio target different audiences than AM radio?
Developed Niche marketing. Targeted specific types of listeners unlike AM Top 40.
What does "AOR" stand for?
Album Oriented Rock
Which English rock group was known as "the biggest band in the world," breaking the record for largest audience (previously held by the Beatles)?
Which English rock group produced a concept album based on "things that drive us to madness" (time, work, money, war, death), and what was that album called?
Pink Floyd; "Dark Side of the Moon" -1973
Name the glam rock pioneer of the 1970s and his 1972 concept album.
David Bowie; "Ziggy Stardust and the Spiders from Mars" 1972
What does "funky" translate to in African BaKongo?
Funki "Healthy Sweat"
What does it mean for a genre/song/artist to "crossover"?
Mix of genres; Reach another genre other than their normal type.
Describe the basic musical characteristics of funk music.
Strong dance oriented rhythms
Guitar riffs and syncopated bass
Call response exchanges
Repeated rhythmically interlocking patterns
What is Soul Train?
TV Program- primarily featured performances by R&B, Soul, and Hip Hop artists. Also ft. Funk, Jazz, Disco and Gospel.
Who was the leader of Parliament/Funkadelic and what was Parliament's best-selling album?
Led by George Clinton AKA Dr. Funkenstein; Best Selling Album: Mothership Connection (1976)
Where did early disco music begin? Why was this music pre-recorded, rather than played live?
Gay community; Recorded because it was not as accepted as other genres. Couldn't find live people to play.
Which movie, starring John Travolta, catapulted disco into the mainstream Top 40?
Saturday Night Fever
Describe the polarizing effect of disco on audiences. What event came to be known as "the day disco died"?
Disco sparked a backlash from rock music fans for being too harsh. Associated w/ gay culture and came from underground communities;
Disco Demolition Night at Comiskey Park. 1979
How did the record industry remedy declining sales in the early 1980s?
CD's, Cable TV and computers in more homes.
What was the purpose of MTV and how did it cooperate with radio to increase record sales?
MTV was a TV Channel devoted soley to music videos. Cooperated w/ ratio to increase record sales and modeled after AOR.
Who was the first black musician played consistently on MTV?
Which album became the best-selling album of all time?
Who is the best-selling female musician in history?
How did women's representation in rock change during the MTV era?
Females were becoming more recognized;
Purposely controversial and provocative
Who replaces the baby boomers as major music consumers?
What does the label "alternative" imply?
Anti Commercial independent music emerging in the wake of Punk Rock.
How do garage bands produce their music and where does this music get played?
DIY Home recordings. Music gets played on college radio stations
Growing availability of inexpensive home equipment
Professional studios were no longer required
Garage bands; College Radio stations;
Who was the first commercially successful alternative rock group, hitting #1 with the song "Losing My Religion"?
Nirvana was a part of the Seattle _____________ scene in the late '80s.
Which Nirvana album displaced Michael Jackson from the #1 Billboard spot?
Name at least two off-shoots of this alternative rock movement.
Gothic Rock; Britpop;
To whom was heavy metal marketed?
Marketed toward working class, blue collar audiences.
Describe the musical characteristics of metal.
Virtuosic guitar playing: speed, power, position
prominent role of bass "heavy"
Loud volumes, heavy distortion
Harsh, growling, screaming vocals.
Which early metal group was known as the "Beatles of heavy metal"? Who was their lead singer (at the height of their popularity)?
Black Sabbath; Headed by Ozzy Osbourne
Give an example of the controversy caused by heavy metal, which has often been blamed for inciting violent reactions in its listeners.
Judas Preist subliminal messages trial: sued as cause of death for 2 suicides in 1985- because subliminal messages could be heard when playing backwards saying "Do it"
How did MTV attempt to cash in on the new heavy metal craze?
They came up with the "Headbangerz Ball" which gave attention to only heavy metal
What is the PMRC and what was their goal?
Parents Music Resource Center
Committee formed in 1985 headed by Tipper Gore; Goal was to ban explicit content in music. Came up with the "Filthy 15"
Which underground metal group rejected MTV's "hair metal" in favor of thrash metal?
Where did early hip hop get its start?
Began in Bronx and Harlem at block parties in the 1970s
Use of turntables, Bboy dancing
What do "DJ" and "MC" stand for?
Disc Jockey & Master of Ceremonies
Name the four manifestations/elements of early hip hop culture.
Graffiti, Breaking, Rapping (MCing), DJing
Define: breaks, backspin, scratching
Breaks: isolated percussive sections of songs
Backspin: spin record backwards to repeat a break
scratching: rapid backspin for percussive effect
Name the three most famous early hip hop DJs and their contributions to the genre.
DJ Kool Herc: invented the "breakbeat." Used two copies of the same record to extend the break indefinitely.
DJ Grandmaster Flash: Refined Herc's techniques. Used headphones to precisely synchronize tempos.
Afrika Bambaataa: Expanded the range of source recordings in Hip Hop.
Which DJ founded Zulu Nation?
Zulu Nation: reformed gang members promoting community and nonviolence.
What are the roots of rap music?
Toasting, African Story Telling, Jazz Poetry, Hustler's Convention.
What label did Russell Simmons and Rick Rubin establish in 1983 that popularized rap in the mainstream?
Def Jam Records
Which rap group was famous for sampling rock music, eventually collaborating with Aerosmith in 1984?
What is digital sampling and why is it controversial?
Taking a portion of music from one recording and using it to construct a beat in a different song.
Can be done using a sampler or computer software
Samples taken from pre-recorded songs or original music
Controversial because of copyright issues- Using someone else's music to make a new song.
What were punk rockers rebelling against?
Authenticity, Consumerism, middle class values; Emphasis on authenticity.
Why was this genre considered to be DIY (do-it-yourself) and how was this reflected in their music?
Emphasis on authenticity; Insisted on doing it all themselves. (Piercing ears, making clothes, etc.)
Describe the musical characteristics of punk rock.
Name the three predecessors of punk rock (the roots of the genre).
The Stooges, The NY Dolls, Velvet Underground.
Which of these groups was closely associated with Andy Warhol?
What was CBGB & OMFUG famous for? Who was the first punk rocker to perform there regularly?
Country, Bluegrass blues and other music for urban gormandizes (?) Punk Rock Music club, where punk rock started.
convergence of punk movement
Which punk group began their career at CBGB, signed to indie label Sire in 1975, and sparked the punk movement in England?
Which punk group incorporated elements of reggae, funk, and rockabilly into their music?
What novel electronic instrument was used heavily in New Wave, differentiating it from punk?
Name precursor to modern synthesizer (Electronic Music)
RCA Mark II Synthesizer
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