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A109 Basic Navigation
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Gravity
Terms in this set (26)
Define Latitude and longitude
Actual position on the earth utilizes meridians of longitude and parallels of latitude to precisely locate any point
Equator
Equidistant from the two poles
Lines of meridians
lines drawn from pole to pole at right angles to the equator
Example of long/lat. location
Washington DC is 39 north of equator and 77 west of the prime meridian; stated as N39 W77
*latitude stated first
True North
Where longitudinal meridians converge
Magnetic North
Attracts the needle of a compass
Magnetic Variation
angular difference between true north and magnetic north
Isogonic lines
...
Agonic line
points where magnetic north and true north are the same
True Course (TC)
course measured with respect to true north (using lat. and long.)
Magnetic Course(MC)
course with respect to magnetic north.
*conversion from true course to magnetic course: subtract easterly variation or add westerly variation
"East is least, west is best"
MC = TC +or- VAR
Magnetic Variation (VAR)
angular difference between true north and magnetic north
Time Zones
STM (standard time meridian)
120 Pacific SMT 1000
105 Mountain SMT 1100;MST
90 Central SMT 1200;CST
75 Eastern SMT 1300;EST
*Earth revolves at 15 degrees an hour
Coordinates Universal Time (UTC)
time at the prime meridian and is represented in aviation by Z for Zulu time; Example: 1500Z
How to convert from Zulu time
EST: subtract 5 hours
CST: subtract 6 hours
MST: subtract 7 hours
PST: subtract 8 hours
*
IFS is MST
*
Deviation(DEV)
magnetic compass if affected by influences within the aircraft and cause needle to be deflected from normal readings. DEV must be applied to convert a magnetic course to a compass course to make it usable in flight
Formula to apply corrections for both variation and deviation
TC +or- VAR = MC +or-DEV = CC
VFR Cruising altitudes
apply when at or above 3,000 feet
*When course is 000 - 179, fly at odd thousands plus 500 feet
*When course is 180 - 359, fly at even thousands plus 500 feet
Dead Reckoning
method used for determining position with a heading indicator and calculations based on speed, elapsed time, and wind effect from a known position.
What instruments are used for dead reckoning?
1)outside air temp
2)airspeed indicator
3)altimeter
4)clock
5)magnetic compass or slaved gyro system
Pilotage
the use of visible landmarks to maintain a desired course, and is the basic form of navigation for the beginning pilot under VFR.
What 3 charts are used by VFR pilots?
1) VFR Sectional Aeronautical Chart
2) VFR Terminal Area Chart
3) World Aeronautical Chart
What does a pilot need to know for navigation?
-starting point
-ending point
-distance to travel
-wind
-aircraft speed
-aircraft fuel capacity/burn rate
-aircraft load
With nav info, what will flight crew determine?
-direction of travel
-time enroute
-fuel burned
-aircraft weight and balance
What are the 3 methods of navigation?
Dead reckoning: computations of direction and distance from known position
Pilotage: navigation by reference to visible landmarks
Radio navigation: the use of radio aids
Aeronautical Chart Symbology
look on slides and paper...too much to list
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