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CLEP Human Growth and Development REA Diagnostic Test

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Which operant conditioning procedure increases the rate of a response by terminating an aversive stimulus?

A. Positive reinforcement

B. Negative reinforcement

C. Punishment

D. Omission training

E. Shaping
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Negative reinforcement involves terminating an aversive stimulus (escape) or postponing its occurrence (avoidance) after a goal response. This increases the likelihood of the response being repeated in the future. Negative reinforcement is often confused with punishment in which an aversive stimulus is introduced to decrease the rate of a response.

Prior to training the animal in the classical conditioning paradigm, only the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) can elicit the unconditioned response (UCR). Conditioned stimuli (CS) are not yet effective because training in the CS + UCS pairing has not yet taken place. For the same reason, a conditioned response (CR) cannot be elicited, as this is defined as the response elicited by the presentation of the CS.
Recognition is easier than recall because

A. recognition memory is a smaller storage system to search than recall memory

B. we have more practice with recognition tests than recall tests

C. the cue in a recognition test is better than the cue in a recall test

D. our minds are hardwired for recognition but not for recall

E. there is no search step required in recognition but there is in recall
The difference between fraternal and identical twins is

A. fraternal twins develop from the same fertilized ovum

B. identical twins develop from the same fertilized ovum

C. fraternal twins have the exact same genetic make up

D. identical twins develop when two ova are fertilized at the same time

E. fraternal twins are both males and identical twins are both females
The information-processing approach to cognitive development describes the mind

A. as having multiple layers, some conscious and some unconscious

B. in constant interaction with the body

C. as a machine that manipulates and processes data like a computer

D. as a passive receptacle for information coming into it from the senses

E. as a "tabula rasa" at birth

The information processing approach to the study of cognitive development uses the computer as a metaphor for the human mind. The mind is viewed as an information processing machine. Information processing theorists study how the mind represents information, how the mind stores and organizes information, and what computations the mind does with information.