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132 terms

FINAL: Terms

STUDY
PLAY
Alliteration
repetition of sounds
Medial Caesura
a middle pause in a line of poetry
Kenning
figurative phrase used as a synonym for a simple noun. (Whale-Road or Sword-Storm)
Dryhten
A lord and protector of people, like a king.
Mead-Hall
Center of Anglo-Saxon life. (Where everyone met)
Ubi Sunt
"where have they gone?" (the good ole' days)
Wyrd
"Fate" (how Anglo-saxons looked at life)
Peace-Weavers
women that married off to make peace between fighting tribes.
Epics
a long narrative poem in elevated style. Usually center around heroic style and episodes that are important to the history of the nation.
Materialism
Devotion to material wealth and possessions.
Chivalry
code of ethics for knights and gentle-woman
Courtly Love
state of adoration (Anglo-Saxon time)
Sonnet
"little sound or song"
The Italian Sonnet
14 line poem
beginning with an octave, follows with a sestet, and ends with a volta.
Octave
an 8 line section in an Italian Sonnet
Sestet
a 6 lined section in an Italian Sonnet
Volta
A "turn" in line 9 of an Italian Sonnet
The English Sonnet
3 quatrains, a turn, and couplet.
quatrains
4 line sections in the english sonnet
turn
a shift in thought in the english sonnet
couplet
a 2 line section in english sonnet
scansion
system for describing the rhythm of a poem.
rhythm
described in terms of stressed and unstressed syllables.
foot
a unit of rhythm in poetry.
full stress
when a syllable gets a heavy emphasis
light stress
when a syllable gets emphasized, but not heavily.
hovering stress
when two syllables that are next to eachother share the stress
hypersyllabic foot
when a foot of poetry has more syllables than it should.
lame foot
when there is a foot of poetry that lacks a syllable.
plosives
p,t,k,b,d
frictives
f,th,s,z,
nasals
m,n
liquids
l,r,w
soliliquy
speech delivered when speaker is alone on stage
comedy of errors
a comedy based around a series of mistakes or mishaps
romantic comedy
serious love is the chief concern
satire
Literature that ridicules human vices, weaknesses, or foolishness.
comedy of situation
focuses on ingenuity of plot rather than character
comedy of manners
Realistic comedy that makes fun of the manners and conventions of an artificial, highly sophisticated way.
tragicomedy
Plot is tragedy and ends with a happy ending
type character
character who is representative of a class or kind of person.
stock character
conventional characters.
tone
the attitude toward the subject implied by a literary work.
reconciliation
an ending of conflict or renewing of friendly relationships.
Meta
"beyond, above, of a higher logical order"
metacognition
thinking about thinking.
metafiction
a fiction about a fiction
monologic
Bahtin reasoning on imagination. people who are one voiced and look at the world in one way.
dialogic
Bahtin reasoning on imagination. People that are many voiced and have many ways of looking at the world.
subversive
trecharous, opposed to status quo or social order
text
what the script literally says.
subtext
what's implied but not stated in the text
protagonist
person who moves the story along, who the story centers around.
antagonist
person/entity/object that is the protagonists main obstacle or opposing force
foil
character who provides contrast to the protagonist, in order to emphasize the main characters traits.
tragedy
a dramatic work that tells the story of someones downfall
harmatia
the error, fraility, mistaken judgement, or misstep through which the fortunes of the hero of a tragedy are reversed.
catastrophe
climax of tragedy, usually horrific (Usually death of a hero)
catharsis
according to aristotle, tragedy "through pity and fear effects the proper purgatation of these emotions."
revenge tragedy
theme is the revenge of the death of a murdered family whose ghost directs the revenge.
tragedy of blood
works out revenge through murder, assassanation, mutilation, and carnage.
irony
when a writers says one thing but means something quite different.
sarcasm
"to tear flesh" Particularly nasty irony intended to insult or injure. Can be very personal.
satirical norm
in many satires, authors will include a character or passage that isn't ironic, sarcastic, or satirical.
rationalism
a whole bunch of modes of thought that rely on reason rather than sense perceptions, revelation, tradition, or authority.
horatian satire
gentle, urbane, smiling. Aims to correct through broadly sympathetic laughter.
dandyism
art of appearing to be a perfect gentleman
novel
only "uncompleted" genre, things in a novel are in a process of growing, developing, and changing.
the "would-be-wits"
people who think they are clever..but arn't
essay
comes from the french and literally means "to try"
the enlightment
a philosophical movement that swept through europe. signaled a shift away from old religious beliefs toward belief in science and religion.
empiricism
all knowledge comes from expierence (not belief or authority.)
humanism
broadly, and attitude that exalts humanity above the supernatural divine, or natural.
juvenalian satire
biting, bitter, angry. It points with contempt and indignation at the corruption of human beings and their institutions.
estate
a true mark of greatness for men in the Regency Period
the "fop"
man obsessed with fashion and vain about his appearance that he becomes ridiculous.
the "prude"
easily shocked and pays alot of attention to proper social behavior.
epics
see life as completed, things are decided and certain.
ontology
a branch of philosophy that's concerned with being and existance.
simile
a comparison that uses like, as, liken, resemble, etc.
metaphor
a comparison that does not use like or as
personification
ascribing human traits to something that isn't human
synecdoche
a trpe in which the part signifies the whole or the whole signifies a part
metonymy
the substitution of an object for an object closely related to it.
end-stopped lines
a line that ends grammatically at the end of the line.
enjambment
a line that continues gramatically through the end of the line.
masculine ending
a line that ends on a stressed syllable
feminine ending
a line that ends on an unstressed syllable
internal rhyme
when there are rhymes within a line (not at the end)
assonance
same or similar vowel sounds in stressed syllables that end with different consonant sounds
consonance
repetition of final consonant sounds
imagery
language that appeals to our sense of sight.
symbol
something that stands for something else.
hyperbole
exaggeration in a poem or story
apostrophe
a figure of speech in which someone (usally but not always absent), some abstract quality, or a nonexistent person is addressed.
frame narrative
a story within a story
interpretation
a readers articulation of the meaning of a work of literature
literal interpretation
what the book/character says.
allegorical interpretation
what the book/character represents.
moral interpretation
what the book/character teaches us about right and wrong
psychological interpretation
what the book/character represent in terms or our conscious and unconscious dreams and desires
social interpretation
what the book/character represent in a social/economic/political terms.
iambic
U /
Trochaic
/ U
Anapestic
UU/
dactylic
/UU
spondee
//
pyrrhic
UU
Antistratfordian Movement
People who think the plays of shakespeare were actually not done by him.
Sir Frances Bacon
First suspect in Antistratfordian movement.
Aesthetics
The study and philosophy of the beautiful in nature, art, and literature.
Socially Conservative
Reinforces the status quo, opposes change, favors the current political/ecomonic/social situation
Socially Radical
opposes the status quo, in favor of change, and opposes the current political/economic/social situation.
frame narrative
a story within a story
laissez-faire
"let it alone"
lyric
a brief subjective poem strongly marked by imagination, melody, and emotion, creating a single unified impression
ballad
a form of verse to be sung or recited and characterized by its presentation of a dramatic or exciting episode or simple narrative.
epistemology
the study of knowledge.
empiricism
experience of objects enables us to understand reality.
phenomenology
an object gets its meaning only through the active use of consciousness
Dialectic
The philosophical principle than an idea or event (thesis) creates its opposite (antithesis) and leads to a reconciliation of opposites (synthesis)
Dickensian
possesing the qualities or characteristics of the works of Charles Dickens
sentimentality
over indulgance in emotions. An optimistic overemphasis on the goodness of humanity
caricature
writing that exaggerates certain individual qualities of a person (often for comic effects)
literary theories
schools of thought that formulate general principals about how to interpret literature.
bildungsroman
a novel that deals with the development of a young person, usually from adolescense to maturity.
villanelle
a fixed 19-line form, originally french, employing only 2 rhymes a repeats 2 of the lines according to a set pattern.
the troubles
a period of often violent political struggle in N. Ireland, beginning in the 1960's and officially ending in 1998.
unionist
supports union of Ireland and Great Britian. Mostly protestant.
nationalist
supports independent ireland. Mostly catholic.
light verse
poetry that is humerous, comic, or witty.
non-sense verse
type of light verse that is entertaining because of its strong rhythmic quality and lack of logic. Often characterized by the presence of made-up words.