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psycho 303 lecture 4
Terms in this set (14)
persistent depressive disorder
- 12 month prevalence of 0.5%
- at least 2 from poor appetite, insomnia/hypersomnia, low energy, low self esteem, poor concentration, hopelessness (depressed for 2 years)
- Social origins of depression: A study of psychiatric disorder in women
- 1st convincing study on depression and stressful life events
- Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O.
- ruled out link between life events and depression reflecting pre-existing depression, memory biases, or interpretive biases
- assessed using detailed-structured and semi-structured interview (only events that occurred before onset of depression included)
- specific life events occurring within last year, date of event identified within 2 weeks
Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O's agreement value
- 0.92 for severe events in separate interviews for each subject & relative
- 0.66 for severity ratings based on 2 separate interviews with same subject
- 0.75 for severity ratings based on same interview
Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. O's assessment of depression
- women who became depressed (41%) were 3x more likely to have had severe life event before onset than non-depressed women (13%)
- agreement was 0.84 between psychiatrists and interviewers
- Characterizing life events as risk factors for depression: The role of fateful loss events
- Do severe life events, that respondents couldn't have likely caused, increase risk for depression?
- Shrout, P., Link, B. G... etc
- 400 community residents in NY compared to 100 patients meeting DSM 3 criteria for major depression
- focused on 12 events likely to be severe (child died, disaster ruined house) 12 months before onset
- rated by 2-4 judges on severity
- then, participants completed measure of psychological distress (bias could be controlled)
Shrout, P., Link, B. G... etc agreement value
- 0.8 for both severity and fatefulness ratings
- death of friend= not fateful
- odds ratios
- people with fateful loss events 2.5x more likely to have subsequent depression onset
- no gender differences between events and depression
Odds Ratios (OR)
indicate how many more times a person is likely to suffer from disorder if he/she has a risk factor (10 1/2 times more likely to have lung cancer than nonsmokers= odds ratio is 10.5)
overlap between circles tell us how strongly variables correlate
useful in ruling out hypotheses that a 3rd variable accounts for the correlation between 2 other variables
- Stressful life events, genetic liability, and onset of an episode of major depression in women
- What type of risk for depression do different events convey?
- Kendler, Kessler et al.
- 1100 women from virginia
- death of close relative= biggest risk of depression (20.5 odd ratio same month of event)
"depression forecasts more frequent life events"
- Symptoms specificity and the prospective generation of life events in adolescence
- Depressed people have more bad things happen to them
- Harkness, K. L. & Stewart, J. G.
- assessed adolescents for major depression and dysthymic disorder @ 2 points in time (1 year apart)
- 45 depressed and non-disordered controls were recruited from community
- all completed structured interviews for dsm 5 disorders at time 1 and 2
Harkness, K. L. & Stewart, J. G's agreement values
- most depressed participants (73%) suffered from MDD
- inter-rater agreement for severity was k= 0.90
- depressed participants had more severe events for about 10% (r= 0.30) of variance
- depression increases risk for further events
what other disorders do life events link to?
alcohol dependence, bulimia, panic disorder, & bipolar disorder
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