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Texas Government

Chapter 1,2,4
STUDY
PLAY
Minority population trends
Decrease in white; Increase in Hispanic; Stable blacks; few natives; More Asians in politics
Current trends on relationship between national and state government
devolution
Problems with future water supply
In 2050, only 70% of demanded water will be available. This is cause from population increase; Migration from other states/countries, Migration from urban to rural
The international boundary between U.S. (Texas) and Mexico
Rio Grande
5 Texas Challenges
Immigration, Water, Education, Social/ poverty, environmental
10th Amendment U.S. Constitution
Powers not given to the federal government by the Constitution belong to the states or the people
Full faith and credit clause
each state is to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Supremacy clause
The constitution and acts of congress and US Treaties prevails over state's constitution and State Laws
Privileges and Immunity's clause
The citizens of each State shall are guaranteed protection by government and enjoyment of life, liberty, property, and right to leave/enter any state, and use courts
Limitations on state power
May not enter into treaties, tax imports from other states, deny right to vote, deprive people of life, liberty, property without law.
Power granted to the states
(reserved powers) Policing powers, taxing powers, proprietary powers, power of eminent domain
Guarantees to the states by the Constitution
Protection against invasion and domestic violence, territorial integrity, Republican form of government, representation in congress of 2 senators/ 1 representative, and Participate in US constitution changes
Enumerated powers
Congress may exercise only those powers that are granted to it by the Constitution, and subject to explicit restrictions in the Bill of Rights and other protections found in the Constitutional text
Implied powers
the powers exercised by Congress which are not explicitly given by the constitution itself but necessary and proper to execute the powers
Difference between enumerated powers and implied powers
Enumerated powers are the restrictions to government through the constitution and bill of rights while implied powers are those powers congress has that are not stated, but necessary
Responsibilities delegated to the states
nations public elections (national, state, local), conduct most trials (criminal and civil) operate public schools and public higher education, maintain prisons
Federal system
states and national government both share power.
14th Amendment
defines national citizenship and forbids the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens
15th Amendment
prohibits the restriction of voting rights "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
19th Amendment
guarantees women the right to vote
NAFTA
North American free trade agreement. Agreement between Canada, Mexico and US that expanded trade among the three countries by reducing and then eliminating tariffs over a 15 yr. period
Texas Constitution of 1836
Independence from Mexico, (new Republic of Texas) Modeled after US Constitution, Same time as "Alamo", 1st constitution of Texas as independent
Constitution 1861
(secession from union) joined the Confederacy. Called the Session constitution. Aimed at making as few changes as possible in government structure and powers. Only changes necessary to equip the government for separation of the United States were included.
Constitution of 1876
(current one), 439 amendments by 2006, 90,000 words long, 7th constitution
Convention goals of 1875 (1876 constitution)
"retrenchment & reform" Restrict governmental power, Reduce public services, Limit state debt and taxing power.
Politics surrounding the 1875 constitutional convention
75 Democrats, 15 Republicans (6 blacks). 40% of Texas grange.
1876 constitution Bill of Rights
protection of people and property; right to bear arms; protection and compensation of contracts; protection of those accused, convicted, and victims of crimes; equal rights for women
Two sources of power for state government
State Constitution & membership in Union
Devolution
when the financial and administrative responsibilities shift from federal government to state and local government. (Transfer of powers from National Government to state or local government)
Eminent domain
refers to the power possessed by the state over all property within the state, specifically its power to appropriate property for a public use. (States powers to take private property and use as they see fit)
Block grants
grants from congress that allow state to have flexibility in spending for a program. (General grants to states)
Literacy test
as a prerequisite for voter registration to determine a prospective voter's literacy. Abolished with voting right act (1965)
Poll tax
an annual tax that had to paid in a 4 month span. If it wasn't paid, the person couldn't vote. Abolished with Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966)
White primaries
adopted to allow only whites to vote as a democrat party (because it was a "private" club) declared unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944)
Grandfather clause
clause to voting restrictions (you can vote if you did in 1867 or your dad/ granddad had. Declared unconstitutional in Guinn v. United States (1915)
The 2 subcultures in Texas politics
Texas individualism, Texas traditionalism
Texas individualism
influence of frontier experience (coping with hardships) and Maintain stable society, intervene as little as possible
Texas Traditionalistic
influence of old south and patron system; Uses government as a means of preserving status quo
The 3 major economic markets in Texas History
Cattle, Oil, Cotton,*becoming a leader in high-tech
Voting Rights Act 1965
Allows individuals and Department of Justice to sue to request voting examiners (come and observe)
Renewal Voting Rights Act 1975
Requires bilingual ballots and voting materials
National Voter Registration Act
Motor voter law allowing citizens to register at numerous public locations including at motor vehicle licensing agencies
Runoff
A month after the first primary to allow party members to choose. Done if the primary fails to produce an absolute majority vote (over 50%)
Dominant party in texas
Republican
Types of party organizations
permanent (caucauses) and temporary (conventions)
Temporary organizations
Primaries and conventions that function briefly to nominate candidates, pass resolutions, adopt a party platform, and select deligates to party conventions at higher levels. Held on even number years.Precinct Convention: First Tuesday in march, Senatorial Convention (County and district): Third Saturday after Precinct elections, State Convention: June (Two day period)
permanent committees
the precinct chairs, county and district executive committees, and the state executive committee form this. Made to recruit candidates, devise strategies, raise funds.... Permanent, Executive Committee, Legislative Caucus
Universal Sufferage
Every adult has right to vote
Socioeconomic factors that influence voter turnout-
More educated vote at highest levels
High income individuals more likely to vote
Women slightly more likely to vote than men
Middle-aged (40-64) most likely to vote
Whites most likely to vote
Reasons for low voter turnout-
Pollsters and media consultaions
Voter fatigue from too many elections
Negative campaigning by candidates
Lack of information
Feelings of isolation from government
State primaries
held every two years
Presidential primaries
held every four years
open primary
voters do not have to declare party
Closed Primary
Voters have to declare party
Type of primary Texas has
Open and Closed
General elections
Government officials administer general elections
Candidate who receives plurality/ popular votes
first Tuesday (of a full week)
Types of general elections
Presidential elections (Held every 4 years in November)
Off-year or midterm elections- (Held in even-numbered years two years after a presidential election)
Special Elections-
administed by Governmental officials
Candidate who receives majority of votes wins
Reasons for special Elections
Fill vacancies in elective office that occur between general elections
Local bond issues
Approve constitutional amendment
Liberal View on Economy
Social welfare programs
Government regulate economy
Progressive taxation
Protect disadvantaged
Conservative view on Economy-
Free market competition
Oppose redistribution of wealth
"Big Government is the Problem"
Promote business
Liberal View on Social Issues-
Optimistic view human nature
Protect civil rights
"legislate morality"
Conservative view on Social Issues-
Proper moral values
traditional values
View change suspiciously
Public Order