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Chapter 1,2,4

Minority population trends

Decrease in white; Increase in Hispanic; Stable blacks; few natives; More Asians in politics

Current trends on relationship between national and state government


Problems with future water supply

In 2050, only 70% of demanded water will be available. This is cause from population increase; Migration from other states/countries, Migration from urban to rural

The international boundary between U.S. (Texas) and Mexico

Rio Grande

5 Texas Challenges

Immigration, Water, Education, Social/ poverty, environmental

10th Amendment U.S. Constitution

Powers not given to the federal government by the Constitution belong to the states or the people

Full faith and credit clause

each state is to recognize the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state

Supremacy clause

The constitution and acts of congress and US Treaties prevails over state's constitution and State Laws

Privileges and Immunity's clause

The citizens of each State shall are guaranteed protection by government and enjoyment of life, liberty, property, and right to leave/enter any state, and use courts

Limitations on state power

May not enter into treaties, tax imports from other states, deny right to vote, deprive people of life, liberty, property without law.

Power granted to the states

(reserved powers) Policing powers, taxing powers, proprietary powers, power of eminent domain

Guarantees to the states by the Constitution

Protection against invasion and domestic violence, territorial integrity, Republican form of government, representation in congress of 2 senators/ 1 representative, and Participate in US constitution changes

Enumerated powers

Congress may exercise only those powers that are granted to it by the Constitution, and subject to explicit restrictions in the Bill of Rights and other protections found in the Constitutional text

Implied powers

the powers exercised by Congress which are not explicitly given by the constitution itself but necessary and proper to execute the powers

Difference between enumerated powers and implied powers

Enumerated powers are the restrictions to government through the constitution and bill of rights while implied powers are those powers congress has that are not stated, but necessary

Responsibilities delegated to the states

nations public elections (national, state, local), conduct most trials (criminal and civil) operate public schools and public higher education, maintain prisons

Federal system

states and national government both share power.

14th Amendment

defines national citizenship and forbids the states to restrict the basic rights of citizens

15th Amendment

prohibits the restriction of voting rights "on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude"

19th Amendment

guarantees women the right to vote


North American free trade agreement. Agreement between Canada, Mexico and US that expanded trade among the three countries by reducing and then eliminating tariffs over a 15 yr. period

Texas Constitution of 1836

Independence from Mexico, (new Republic of Texas) Modeled after US Constitution, Same time as "Alamo", 1st constitution of Texas as independent

Constitution 1861

(secession from union) joined the Confederacy. Called the Session constitution. Aimed at making as few changes as possible in government structure and powers. Only changes necessary to equip the government for separation of the United States were included.

Constitution of 1876

(current one), 439 amendments by 2006, 90,000 words long, 7th constitution

Convention goals of 1875 (1876 constitution)

"retrenchment & reform" Restrict governmental power, Reduce public services, Limit state debt and taxing power.

Politics surrounding the 1875 constitutional convention

75 Democrats, 15 Republicans (6 blacks). 40% of Texas grange.

1876 constitution Bill of Rights

protection of people and property; right to bear arms; protection and compensation of contracts; protection of those accused, convicted, and victims of crimes; equal rights for women

Two sources of power for state government

State Constitution & membership in Union


when the financial and administrative responsibilities shift from federal government to state and local government. (Transfer of powers from National Government to state or local government)

Eminent domain

refers to the power possessed by the state over all property within the state, specifically its power to appropriate property for a public use. (States powers to take private property and use as they see fit)

Block grants

grants from congress that allow state to have flexibility in spending for a program. (General grants to states)

Literacy test

as a prerequisite for voter registration to determine a prospective voter's literacy. Abolished with voting right act (1965)

Poll tax

an annual tax that had to paid in a 4 month span. If it wasn't paid, the person couldn't vote. Abolished with Harper v. Virginia State Board of Elections (1966)

White primaries

adopted to allow only whites to vote as a democrat party (because it was a "private" club) declared unconstitutional in Smith v. Allwright (1944)

Grandfather clause

clause to voting restrictions (you can vote if you did in 1867 or your dad/ granddad had. Declared unconstitutional in Guinn v. United States (1915)

The 2 subcultures in Texas politics

Texas individualism, Texas traditionalism

Texas individualism

influence of frontier experience (coping with hardships) and Maintain stable society, intervene as little as possible

Texas Traditionalistic

influence of old south and patron system; Uses government as a means of preserving status quo

The 3 major economic markets in Texas History

Cattle, Oil, Cotton,*becoming a leader in high-tech

Voting Rights Act 1965

Allows individuals and Department of Justice to sue to request voting examiners (come and observe)

Renewal Voting Rights Act 1975

Requires bilingual ballots and voting materials

National Voter Registration Act

Motor voter law allowing citizens to register at numerous public locations including at motor vehicle licensing agencies


A month after the first primary to allow party members to choose. Done if the primary fails to produce an absolute majority vote (over 50%)

Dominant party in texas


Types of party organizations

permanent (caucauses) and temporary (conventions)

Temporary organizations

Primaries and conventions that function briefly to nominate candidates, pass resolutions, adopt a party platform, and select deligates to party conventions at higher levels. Held on even number years.Precinct Convention: First Tuesday in march, Senatorial Convention (County and district): Third Saturday after Precinct elections, State Convention: June (Two day period)

permanent committees

the precinct chairs, county and district executive committees, and the state executive committee form this. Made to recruit candidates, devise strategies, raise funds.... Permanent, Executive Committee, Legislative Caucus

Universal Sufferage

Every adult has right to vote

Socioeconomic factors that influence voter turnout-

More educated vote at highest levels
High income individuals more likely to vote
Women slightly more likely to vote than men
Middle-aged (40-64) most likely to vote
Whites most likely to vote

Reasons for low voter turnout-

Pollsters and media consultaions
Voter fatigue from too many elections
Negative campaigning by candidates
Lack of information
Feelings of isolation from government

State primaries

held every two years

Presidential primaries

held every four years

open primary

voters do not have to declare party

Closed Primary

Voters have to declare party

Type of primary Texas has

Open and Closed

General elections

Government officials administer general elections
Candidate who receives plurality/ popular votes
first Tuesday (of a full week)

Types of general elections

Presidential elections (Held every 4 years in November)
Off-year or midterm elections- (Held in even-numbered years two years after a presidential election)

Special Elections-

administed by Governmental officials
Candidate who receives majority of votes wins

Reasons for special Elections

Fill vacancies in elective office that occur between general elections
Local bond issues
Approve constitutional amendment

Liberal View on Economy

Social welfare programs
Government regulate economy
Progressive taxation
Protect disadvantaged

Conservative view on Economy-

Free market competition
Oppose redistribution of wealth
"Big Government is the Problem"
Promote business

Liberal View on Social Issues-

Optimistic view human nature
Protect civil rights
"legislate morality"

Conservative view on Social Issues-

Proper moral values
traditional values
View change suspiciously
Public Order

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