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psychology - chapter 7
Terms in this set (56)
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems.
the ability to break problems down into component parts, or analysis, for problem solving. (EX: "book smarts" , intelligent tests & academic tests)
estimating the frequency or likelihood of an event based on how easy it is to recall relevant information from memory or how easy it is for us to think of related examples.
basic level type
an example of a type of concept around which other similar concepts are organized, such as "dog," "cat," or "pear."
mental activity that goes on in the brain when a person is organizing and attempting to understand information, and communicating information to others.
theory that concepts are universal and influence the development of language.
ideas that represent a class or category of objects, events, or activities. (Ex: fruit, bird, dog)
the tendency to search for evidence that fits one's beliefs while ignoring any evidence that does not fit those beliefs.
type of thinking in which a problem is seen as having only one answer, and all lines of thinking will eventually lead to that single answer, using previous knowledge and logic (EX: in what ways are a pen and pencil alike? they both write, shape is about the same. works well for routine problem solving)
the ability to deal with new and different concepts and to come up with new ways of solving problems. (Ex: being able to design the experiment in the first place, automatically process certain aspects of information)
the process of solving problems by combining ideas or behavior in new ways.
deviation IQ score
a type of intelligence measure that assumes that IQ is normally distributed around a mean of 100 with a standard deviation of about 15.
type of thinking in which a person starts from one point and comes up with many different ideas or possibilities based on that point. Attributed to creativity and intelligence
the awareness of and ability to manage one's own emotions as well as the ability to be self-motivated, able to feel what others feel, and socially skilled.
concepts that are defined by specific rules or features. (Ex: square must be 2D figure with 4 equal sides and 4 angles adding up to 360 degrees) science and mathematics are full of this
a block to problem solving that comes from thinking about objects in terms of only their typical functions.
(Ex: needing a screwdriver, you could use a butter knife, a dime in your pocket etc)
the ability to reason and solve problems, or general intelligence.
the 2 percent of the population falling on the upper end of the normal curve and typically possessing an IQ of 130 or above.
the system of rules governing the structure and use of a language.
an educated guess based on experiences that help narrow down the possible solutions for a problem. Also known as a "rule of thumb."
condition in which a person's behavioral and cognitive skills exist at an earlier developmental stage than the skills of others who are the same chronological age; may also be referred to as developmentally delayed. This condition was formerly known as mental retardation.
the ability to learn from one's experiences, acquire knowledge, and use resources effectively in adapting to new situations or solving problems.
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a number representing a measure of intelligence, resulting from the division of one's mental age by one's chronological age and then multiplying that quotient by 100.
a system for combining symbols (such as words) so that an unlimited number of meaningful statements can be made for the purpose of communicating with others.
1877-1956. Cognitive psychologist well known for his longitudinal study of gifted children, affectionately referred to as Terman's Termites.
linguistic relativity hypothesis
the theory that thought processes and concepts are controlled by language.
heuristic in which the difference between the starting situation and the goal is determined and then steps are taken to reduce that difference.
mental representations that stand in for objects or events and have a picturelike quality.
the tendency for people to persist in using problem-solving patterns that have worked for them in the past.
the smallest units of meaning within a language.
concepts people form as a result of their experiences in the real world. (Ex: vehicle - bobsled, car, truck)
the role a person's environment plays in his or her development.
the basic units of sound in language.
the ability to use information to get along in life and become successful. (Ex: "street smarts" being able to get funding for the experiment from donors, know how to be tactful, how to manipulate situations to their advantage)
aspects of language involving the practical ways of communicating with others, or the social "niceties" of language.
process of cognition that occurs when a goal must be reached by thinking and behaving in certain ways.
an example of a concept that closely matches the defining characteristics of a concept. (Ex: when someone says think of a fruit northern hemisphere thinks of apple because it's common - Southern Hemisphere coconut because it's common)
the tendency of a test to produce the same scores again and again each time it is given to the same people.
assumption that any object (or person) sharing characteristics with the members of a particular category is also a member of that category. (Ex: stereotype-red hair people have bad tempers, blue eyes people from Sweden)
the ability to excel in certain areas, or specific intelligence.
the rules for determining the meaning of words and sentences.
the most specific category of a concept, such as one's pet dog or a pear in one's hand; subordinate refers to lowest in status or standing. (Ex: Granny Smith apple)
the most general form of a type of concept, such as "animal" or "fruit"; superordinate refers to highest in status or standing.
the system of rules for combining words and phrases to form grammatically correct sentences.
trial and error (mechanical solution)
problem-solving method in which one possible solution after another is tried until a successful one is found.
triarchic theory of intelligence
Sternberg's theory that there are three kinds of intelligences: analytical, creative, and practical.
the degree to which a test actually measures what it's supposed to measure.
The answer just "pops" into your head or "aha" moment
Binet & Simon
came up with an IQ test that not only ditingyushed between fast and slow learners but also between children of different age groups as well. Key element to be tested was a child's "mental age"
created the IQ test (MA/AA x 100 = IQ)
first to devise a series of tests designed for specific age groups (adults, older school-grade children, preschool children, early grades). his tests are now used more frequently than SB5, used verbal and performance scale
refers to the process of giving the test to a large group of people that represents the kind of people for whom the test is designed
The Dani have only two words for color yet can distinguish between many different colors. This findings supports the language of?
grammer does not include?
concepts preceded and aided in development of language "collective monologue"
language helped develop concepts "egocentric"
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