Prentice Hall Chemistry Chapter 9

Review of the main facts of Prentice Hall's Chemistry: Chapter 9
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Group IA atoms form...
1+ cations by losing 1 electron.
Group IIA atoms form...
2+ cations by losing 2 electrons.
Group IIIA atoms form...
3+ cations by losing 3 electrons.
eg: aluminum forms an Al^3+ ion
Group VA atoms form...
3- anions by gaining 3 electrons.
(subtract 8 from the group number)
Group VIA atoms form...
2- anions by gaining 2 electrons.
(subtract 8 from the group number)
Group VIIA atoms form...
1- anions by gaining 1 electron.
(subtract 8 from the group number)
Group VIIIA atoms...
are stable and do not form ions under normal conditions.
Metals
elements located to the left side of the "staircase."
What determines if an element on the periodic table is a metal, nonmetal, or metalloid?
the position of the element on the periodic table.
Ionic compounds are composed of...
-metals and nonmetals
-cations and anions
eg: BaCl2 consists of cation Ba2+ and anion Cl-
Anions are named by modifying the element name to end in...
-ide.
eg: N3- is called nitride ion
Cations are named by writing...
the name of the metal element.
Transition metals...
can have more than one charge.
Cations of transition metals are named by...
indicating the charge by writing the Roman numeral of the charge following the name of the transition metal.
eg: chromium oxide
Binary ionic compounds are generally written as...
cations on the left and anions on the right.
The names of all binary compounds, both ionic and molecular, end in...
-ide.
eg: CaF2 is calcium flouride
PbO is lead II oxide
SnBr4 is tin IV bromide
CuSO4 is copper II sulfate
Binary molecular compounds are made of...
nonmetallic elements.
In naming binary molecular compounds, the number of atoms of each element present in the molecule is indicated by...
a prefix.
eg: SiO2 is silicon dioxide
(The cation does not have a prefix if there is only one cation.)
Polyatomic ions are...
ions that are formed by the bonding of elements that results in the bonded atoms acting as a unit with a charge.
(Treated the same as individual ions when balanced)
Polyatomic ions usually end in...
-ite or -ate.
(implies that oxygen is the formula. Probably a polyatomic anion compound.)
eg: CuSO4 copper II cation combined with a sulfate anion
Binary molecular compounds are composed of...
2 nonmetallic elements.
eg: PCl5 or CO or SO2
The cation Stock name is given a Roman numeral to indicate the...
charge of a cation with more than one possible charge.
The classical name for a cation is given a....
different ending for the ion to indicate its charge.
The lower charge number of the cation is given an ending of...
-ous.
eg: Cu1+ is called cuprous ion (classical)
The higher charge number of the cation is given the ending of...
-ic.
eg: Cu2+ is called cupric ion (classical)
Common names of compounds do not contain information about the...
chemical composition of the compound.
eg: salt does not say anything about the compounds/atoms
Mn2O3 implies that Mn has a charge of...
3+
Mn2O3 implies than O has a charge of...
-2
What is the classical name of SnF4?
Stannic flouride
What is the name for the compound COCl2?
Cobalt (II) Chloride
What is the formula for calcium dihydrogen phosphate?
Ca(H2PO4)
What is the name for N2O5?
dinitrogen pentoxide
What is the name for Sn3(PO4)2?
tin (II) phosphate
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