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For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle


For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.

oxidative phosphorylation

In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.


The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.

intermembrane space

During electron transport, energy from NADH and FADH2 is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.

kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient

The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.


This reaction occurs spontaneously.


This reaction requires a net input of energy from its surroundings.


In cells, this is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reactions.


The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.


The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction


This group is removed when ATP is converted to ADP, and then acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.

energy coupling

the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction


When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate, a ______ amount of energy is released.


When one molecule gains an electron from another, the molecule that received the electron has been _____.

Energy of activation

Enzymes work by reducing the ____.


organic catalyst


Name given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction


As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme is _____.

orienting substrates

Enzymes speed reaction rates by _____ and lowering activation energy

the transition state

Activation energies are reduced because enzymes stabilize _____.

the active site's R-groups

Enzyme specificity is a function of the shape of the active site and the chemical properties of _____.

conservation of energy

energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another


Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.

cellular respiration

In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?

heat, carbon dioxide, and water

By-products of cellular respiration

oxidized, reduced

In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ and oxygen is _____.


How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?

substrate-level phosphorylation

In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.


In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?


In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.

acetyl CoA

enters the citric acid cycle

substrate-level phosphorylation

In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.


The high-energy electron carrier that is reduced during glycolysis, pyruvate processing, and the citric acid cycle, and which carries electrons to the electron transport system, is _____.


_____ is the three-carbon sugar that is produced as an end product of glycolysis.

competitive inhibition

Competitive inhibition involves binding of a regulatory molecule to the active site

allosteric regulation

a regulatory molecule binds to a different location


The reactions of pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain occur within the _____ in the cell.

purpose of the electron transport chain in the formation of ATP

The proteins in the electron transport chain pump protons from the matrix of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space, thus establishing an electrochemical gradient

ADP synthase

At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _____,.which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.

lactate and NAD+

In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.

pyruvate, NADH

In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized


Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?

phosphate groups

The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three _______ ______.


Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?

carbon dioxide

Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?

electron transport chain

NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the ______.

electron transport chain and chemiosmosis

Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?


The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the _________.


Organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways almost never ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor required by the ETC because the fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of ____ molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.


_______ regenerates NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis going in the absence of oxygen.

water, NADPH

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

light-dependent reactions

Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?


The ____________ reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars


This molecule is the primary product of photosystem I

dependent, independent

The light-________ reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-_________ reactions.

regeneration of RuBP

Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?


The molecules that absorb only certain wavelengths of light energy from the Sun in order to begin the photosynthetic reactions are called ____________.

chlorophyll pigments

The _______ ________ absorb all wavelengths of light except in the green spectrum, which it reflects

enter an excited state

When a photon of light is absorbed by a pigment molecule, electrons in the molecule _____.


What important molecule that is needed for cellular respiration is released when water is split in the light reactions of photosynthesis?


During the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is _____, in order to drive the formation of sugars.


____________ captures light energy from the Sun and stores it in the bonds of glucose, which is then used during cellular respiration to drive the formation of ATP in all plants and animals.


The ______________ experiment answered the question of whether protein or DNA was the genetic material by learning if DNA or protein from a virus entered bacterial cells during infection.


This experiment determined what part of newly replicated DNA comes from the parental molecule and what part is newly synthesized

5' to 3'

DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the ______ direction


Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _______.

old, new

After DNA replication is completed, each new DNA double helix consists of one ___ DNA strand and one ___ DNA strand


the action of _______ creates replication forks and replication bubbles

replication fork

the transition region between paired and unpaired DNA strands

DNA Polymerase

DNA synthesis by ___ __________ always proceeds in the 5'→3' direction, using a complementary, antiparallel strand as template


the first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed ______


The _______of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand

RNA primer

The synthesis of a DNA strand begins with the formation of an _________


catalyzes the formation of an RNA primer.

daughter DNA

the new DNA's after replication is complete; identical to each other

leading strand

the new DNA that grows continuously in the 5' to 3' direction

DNA polymerase

the enzyme that can replicate DNA

replication fork

during DNA replication, an open section of DNA, in which a DNA polymerase can replicate DNA

Okazaki segments

short segments of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand of the replicating DNA


the process of using the information in mRNA to synthesize a protein

central dogma

The idea that the sequence of bases in DNA specifies the sequence of bases in an RNA molecule, which specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein, is


A cell's phenotype is the result of physical traits that are the product of proteins it produces. Errors in _______ of DNA to mRNA would change the mRNA sequence and might change the amino acid sequence of protein


____________ of translation happens when the ribosome hits a stop codon on the mRNA.

aminoactyl-tRNA synthesase

enzymes that attach amino acids to tRNA


the RNA that has an amino acid attached to it, and that binds to the codon on the mRNA, is called a tRNA


the process performed by the ribosome, of reading mRNA and synthesizing a protein


__________ of translational ways always happens at the start codon of the mRNA.

modified guanine nucleotide

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.

long string of adenine nucleotides

During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.

snRNPs and other proteins

Spliceosomes are composed of


the RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are


translation occurs in the


bind(s) to DNA enhancer regions


What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?


DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?

nontranscribed sequence on DNA

Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?

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