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97 terms

Biology II Exam II

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2
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle
6
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
oxidative phosphorylation
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
oxygen
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
intermembrane space
During electron transport, energy from NADH and FADH2 is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
exergonic
This reaction occurs spontaneously.
endergonic
This reaction requires a net input of energy from its surroundings.
ATP
In cells, this is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reactions.
endergonic
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.
exergonic
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction
phosphate
This group is removed when ATP is converted to ADP, and then acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
energy coupling
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
large
When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate, a ______ amount of energy is released.
reduced
When one molecule gains an electron from another, the molecule that received the electron has been _____.
Energy of activation
Enzymes work by reducing the ____.
enzyme
organic catalyst
substrate
Name given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction
unchanged
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme is _____.
orienting substrates
Enzymes speed reaction rates by _____ and lowering activation energy
the transition state
Activation energies are reduced because enzymes stabilize _____.
the active site's R-groups
Enzyme specificity is a function of the shape of the active site and the chemical properties of _____.
conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
potential
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.
cellular respiration
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
By-products of cellular respiration
oxidized, reduced
In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ and oxygen is _____.
2
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
substrate-level phosphorylation
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
ATP
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
2
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
acetyl CoA
enters the citric acid cycle
substrate-level phosphorylation
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
NADH
The high-energy electron carrier that is reduced during glycolysis, pyruvate processing, and the citric acid cycle, and which carries electrons to the electron transport system, is _____.
Pyruvate
_____ is the three-carbon sugar that is produced as an end product of glycolysis.
competitive inhibition
Competitive inhibition involves binding of a regulatory molecule to the active site
allosteric regulation
a regulatory molecule binds to a different location
mitochondria
The reactions of pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain occur within the _____ in the cell.
purpose of the electron transport chain in the formation of ATP
The proteins in the electron transport chain pump protons from the matrix of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space, thus establishing an electrochemical gradient
ADP synthase
At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _____,.which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
lactate and NAD+
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
pyruvate, NADH
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized
glucose
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
phosphate groups
The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three _______ ______.
glycolysis
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
carbon dioxide
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
electron transport chain
NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the ______.
electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
mitochondria
The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the _________.
ATP
Organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways almost never ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor required by the ETC because the fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of ____ molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.
fermentation
_______ regenerates NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis going in the absence of oxygen.
water, NADPH
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
light-dependent reactions
Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?
light-independent
The ____________ reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars
NADPH
This molecule is the primary product of photosystem I
dependent, independent
The light-________ reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-_________ reactions.
regeneration of RuBP
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
pigments
The molecules that absorb only certain wavelengths of light energy from the Sun in order to begin the photosynthetic reactions are called ____________.
chlorophyll pigments
The _______ ________ absorb all wavelengths of light except in the green spectrum, which it reflects
enter an excited state
When a photon of light is absorbed by a pigment molecule, electrons in the molecule _____.
oxygen
What important molecule that is needed for cellular respiration is released when water is split in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
reduced
During the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is _____, in order to drive the formation of sugars.
photosynthesis
____________ captures light energy from the Sun and stores it in the bonds of glucose, which is then used during cellular respiration to drive the formation of ATP in all plants and animals.
Hershey-Chase
The ______________ experiment answered the question of whether protein or DNA was the genetic material by learning if DNA or protein from a virus entered bacterial cells during infection.
meselson-stahl
This experiment determined what part of newly replicated DNA comes from the parental molecule and what part is newly synthesized
5' to 3'
DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the ______ direction
ligase
Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _______.
old, new
After DNA replication is completed, each new DNA double helix consists of one ___ DNA strand and one ___ DNA strand
helicase
the action of _______ creates replication forks and replication bubbles
replication fork
the transition region between paired and unpaired DNA strands
DNA Polymerase
DNA synthesis by ___ __________ always proceeds in the 5'→3' direction, using a complementary, antiparallel strand as template
helicase
the first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed ______
synthesis
The _______of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand
RNA primer
The synthesis of a DNA strand begins with the formation of an _________
primase
catalyzes the formation of an RNA primer.
daughter DNA
the new DNA's after replication is complete; identical to each other
leading strand
the new DNA that grows continuously in the 5' to 3' direction
DNA polymerase
the enzyme that can replicate DNA
replication fork
during DNA replication, an open section of DNA, in which a DNA polymerase can replicate DNA
Okazaki segments
short segments of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand of the replicating DNA
translation
the process of using the information in mRNA to synthesize a protein
central dogma
The idea that the sequence of bases in DNA specifies the sequence of bases in an RNA molecule, which specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein, is
transcription
A cell's phenotype is the result of physical traits that are the product of proteins it produces. Errors in _______ of DNA to mRNA would change the mRNA sequence and might change the amino acid sequence of protein
termination
____________ of translation happens when the ribosome hits a stop codon on the mRNA.
aminoactyl-tRNA synthesase
enzymes that attach amino acids to tRNA
tRNA
the RNA that has an amino acid attached to it, and that binds to the codon on the mRNA, is called a tRNA
translation
the process performed by the ribosome, of reading mRNA and synthesizing a protein
initiation
__________ of translational ways always happens at the start codon of the mRNA.
modified guanine nucleotide
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
long string of adenine nucleotides
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
snRNPs and other proteins
Spliceosomes are composed of
exons
the RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are
cytoplasm
translation occurs in the
activators
bind(s) to DNA enhancer regions
transcription
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?
organelles
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?
nontranscribed sequence on DNA
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?