For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
During electron transport, energy from NADH and FADH2 is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
This reaction occurs spontaneously.
This reaction requires a net input of energy from its surroundings.
In cells, this is usually the immediate source of energy for an endergonic reactions.
The reaction ADP + P --> ATP is a(n) _____ reaction.
The energy for an endergonic reaction comes from a(n) _____ reaction
This group is removed when ATP is converted to ADP, and then acquired by a reactant in an endergonic reaction.
the use of energy released from an exergonic reaction to drive an endergonic reaction
When ATP is hydrolyzed into ADP and inorganic phosphate, a ______ amount of energy is released.
When one molecule gains an electron from another, the molecule that received the electron has been _____.
Energy of activation
Enzymes work by reducing the ____.
Name given to the reactants in an enzymatically catalyzed reaction
As a result of its involvement in a reaction, an enzyme is _____.
Enzymes speed reaction rates by _____ and lowering activation energy
the transition state
Activation energies are reduced because enzymes stabilize _____.
the active site's R-groups
Enzyme specificity is a function of the shape of the active site and the chemical properties of _____.
conservation of energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another
Chemical energy is a form of _____ energy.
In your body, what process converts the chemical energy found in glucose into the chemical energy found in ATP?
heat, carbon dioxide, and water
By-products of cellular respiration
In cellular respiration, glucose is _____ and oxygen is _____.
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
enters the citric acid cycle
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The high-energy electron carrier that is reduced during glycolysis, pyruvate processing, and the citric acid cycle, and which carries electrons to the electron transport system, is _____.
_____ is the three-carbon sugar that is produced as an end product of glycolysis.
Competitive inhibition involves binding of a regulatory molecule to the active site
a regulatory molecule binds to a different location
The reactions of pyruvate processing, the citric acid cycle, and the electron transport chain occur within the _____ in the cell.
purpose of the electron transport chain in the formation of ATP
The proteins in the electron transport chain pump protons from the matrix of the mitochondria to the intermembrane space, thus establishing an electrochemical gradient
At the end of cellular respiration, protons flow through a protein called _____,.which drives the formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
lactate and NAD+
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
The potential energy in an ATP molecule is derived mainly from its three _______ ______.
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
electron transport chain
NADH and FADH2 donate their electrons to the ______.
electron transport chain and chemiosmosis
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
The reactions that generate the largest amounts of ATP during cellular respiration take place in the _________.
Organisms that have an ETC as well as fermentation pathways almost never ferment pyruvate if the electron acceptor required by the ETC because the fermentation is extremely inefficient in terms of ____ molecules produced for each molecule of glucose metabolized.
_______ regenerates NAD+ from NADH to keep glycolysis going in the absence of oxygen.
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?
The ____________ reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars
This molecule is the primary product of photosystem I
The light-________ reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-_________ reactions.
regeneration of RuBP
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
The molecules that absorb only certain wavelengths of light energy from the Sun in order to begin the photosynthetic reactions are called ____________.
The _______ ________ absorb all wavelengths of light except in the green spectrum, which it reflects
enter an excited state
When a photon of light is absorbed by a pigment molecule, electrons in the molecule _____.
What important molecule that is needed for cellular respiration is released when water is split in the light reactions of photosynthesis?
During the Calvin cycle, carbon dioxide is _____, in order to drive the formation of sugars.
____________ captures light energy from the Sun and stores it in the bonds of glucose, which is then used during cellular respiration to drive the formation of ATP in all plants and animals.
The ______________ experiment answered the question of whether protein or DNA was the genetic material by learning if DNA or protein from a virus entered bacterial cells during infection.
This experiment determined what part of newly replicated DNA comes from the parental molecule and what part is newly synthesized
5' to 3'
DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the ______ direction
Short segments of newly synthesized DNA are joined into a continuous strand by _______.
After DNA replication is completed, each new DNA double helix consists of one ___ DNA strand and one ___ DNA strand
the action of _______ creates replication forks and replication bubbles
the transition region between paired and unpaired DNA strands
DNA synthesis by ___ __________ always proceeds in the 5'→3' direction, using a complementary, antiparallel strand as template
the first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed ______
The _______of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand
The synthesis of a DNA strand begins with the formation of an _________
catalyzes the formation of an RNA primer.
the new DNA's after replication is complete; identical to each other
the new DNA that grows continuously in the 5' to 3' direction
the enzyme that can replicate DNA
during DNA replication, an open section of DNA, in which a DNA polymerase can replicate DNA
short segments of DNA that are synthesized on the lagging strand of the replicating DNA
the process of using the information in mRNA to synthesize a protein
The idea that the sequence of bases in DNA specifies the sequence of bases in an RNA molecule, which specifies the sequence of amino acids in a protein, is
A cell's phenotype is the result of physical traits that are the product of proteins it produces. Errors in _______ of DNA to mRNA would change the mRNA sequence and might change the amino acid sequence of protein
____________ of translation happens when the ribosome hits a stop codon on the mRNA.
enzymes that attach amino acids to tRNA
the RNA that has an amino acid attached to it, and that binds to the codon on the mRNA, is called a tRNA
the process performed by the ribosome, of reading mRNA and synthesizing a protein
__________ of translational ways always happens at the start codon of the mRNA.
modified guanine nucleotide
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
long string of adenine nucleotides
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
snRNPs and other proteins
Spliceosomes are composed of
the RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are
translation occurs in the
bind(s) to DNA enhancer regions
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?
nontranscribed sequence on DNA
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?