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L5: Buddhist Architecture in India, China, and Japan, Exam 2 Required Slides
Terms in this set (59)
(2000-1200 BCE) Dwindling of Indus Ghaggar-Hakra civilization, gradual migration of Aryans from north who brought with them bringing their own distinctive language and religions. Preserving some of their early traditions, eventually taking them down to a body of sacred writings called the Vedas. The Vedas are regarded as the source for later sacred Hindu literature, but Vedic culture not Hindu! City of Varanasi, on river bed Ganges considered spiritual center. The rituals and beliefs of Vedic culture, which centered on fire sacrifices, developed most fully here. It was not one or even several formalized, systematized religions that developed at Varanasi, but rather a constellation of different religious practices; together, these provided the foundation for Hinduism
By 1000 BCE, India divided into these 16 kingdoms
City of Varanasi on the Ganges River
important site for genesis of Hinduism, mixing ancient Vedic practices (fire) and Buddhism, in Hinduism this city is the place where male and female principles embodied Shiva and Shakti(as Ganges) are conjoined in conjugal harmony, ghats
Landings or banks along the Ganges river as platforms or temples that are for bathing, ritual observance, the two main ghats are dedicated to cremation: the ashes of the dead are placed directly in the Ganges, for to die and be cremated on the bank of the Ganges at Varanasi is to attain Nirvana.
Development of Buddhism
(6th century BCE) 323 bCE, Chandragupta Maurya conquers all mahajanapadas & founds Mauryan Empire. His grandson Ashoka converted to Buddhism and spread it across the empire
(272-231 BCE) Responsible for inheriting control over mahajanapadas from his grandfather Chandragupta Maurya and converting India to Buddhism. Has Ashokan Pillars all over, with not just impressive ( and unknown who did it/where made bc issue over Indian artisans of hellenistic/iranian influence) capitols but actually used monuments to relay buddhist info like that of printing press later on
"Pillars of Law", 20 left in modern, adapted previous cult capitols with ( do the pillars still rep the axis of the world to Buddha/ashoka?) shaft had inscribed text of Ashoka's dharma or code of ethics
lower vehicle = mendicant Buddhism , before became heavily patronized by dynasties/royalty, defined by itinerant, in poverty, surviving by begging
higher vehicle = monastic Buddhism, Buddhism began receiving increasing royal patronage, more settled and monastic, requiring the establishments of institutions where Buddhist monks could settle and study. This eventually spread to Central Asia, China, Korea, and Japan
3 main forms of early Buddhist architecture
stupa: memorial to Buddha shaped like the mound of earth containing his ashes, vihara: retreat for monks and nuns, caitya: an apsidial prayer hall
form of animism in which every of nature is revered
noble, sacred shinto spirits. Associated with trees rocks, mountains, waters, etc., and regarded as creative and harmonizing forces of nature. Buddha originally received as a kami. Kami receive tribute at Shinto shrines in the form of food, music, dance, and other skills including archery and sumo wrestling. These shrines were initially just simple structures where kami were thought to dwell.
detached portal before shinto shrine
sacred necklace of magatama
symbol of succession from the Sun Goddess; emblem of the Japanese Emperor.
Inner shrine at Ise Jingu, dedicated to Amaterasu Omikama (heaven0iIlluminating great Kami) who is the traditional ancestral deity of the imperial house. The path to the Naiku is carefully scripted, marked by a series of torii (see plan above left). You cross the Uji bridge over the Isuzu River (top left of plan; photo above); at each end of the bridge is a torii marking the presence of a sacred shrine; from there, the pilgrim goes to the right along a street covered with gravel and flanked by gardens; at the end, another torii; after that, there is a large stone basin with water for purification rituals; and then, you turn east and go up the slope. Here you reach another torii (left), where you enter the forest.
Outer Shrine at Ise Jingu, dedicated to Touke Okami (Abundant food great Kami).
"the transfer of the god-body to a new shrine in a special festival year". There are two alternate sites side by side; when one is housing the shrine, the other is covered in gravel. The purpose of the ritual rebuilding has to do with the idea of renewal: there is a desire to show reverence to the great kami by revitalizing its earthly residence; thus the transience of material objects (as opposed to the permanence of an ideal form) is ritually enacted. And whereas the material object is like a body, the ideal form, in its permanence, is like the kami.
Innermost Shrine, only for the reigning emperor. Twenty-one stone steps (above L) then lead you up to the torii of the outermost fence, a little beyond which there is a silk curtain creates a boundary past which only priests or members of the imperial family can pass. The innermost shrine - the Shoden - is reserved only for the reigning emperor. Distance from the Shoden for the rest of the family is a measure of their distance from the throne. In addition to the Shoden the Naiku also contains two treasuries. The Shoden itself is a meticulously crafted and ornamented wooden structure, three bays wide and two bays deep, built entirely without nails. These type buildings are made with posts set right into the ground without foundations or stone bases. These are connected by transverse beams that support center struts which carry the ridgepole. In many cases, as at the Ise Shrine, the ridgepole is supported by two pillars standing free of the wall on the short end. There is no curve in the thatched roof, and no complex structural system supporting it. The modest size of the building makes anything more complex unnecessary. Rather the energy is devoted to the finish, which is extraordinarily fine.
based on Indian stupa, enshrining a holy relic and symbolizing the presence of a Buddhist sanctuary.
The official arrival of Buddhism in Japan occurred from Korea in the middle of the 6th century (it had gotten to Korea from China). By the end of the century it was entrenched. During the 7th and 8th centuries, the imperial family began supporting Buddhism more and more, and enormous sums were allocated for temples. This is when the great Horyu-ji monastery in Ikaruga (Nara Prefecture) was built, which constitutes the most important surviving architectural complex in early Japan.
main hall/image hall. Enshrined inside the kondo is the main devotional image of the monastery
pagoda, kondo, and lecture hall are on the same axis
pagoda and kondo juxtaposed on either side of main axis
cloud-pattern brackets (kumo-hijiki) and cloud-pattern bearing blocks (kumo-to) (7th-8th centuries) The kondo, like the two gates and the pagoda, employs a roof support system consisting of cloud-pattern brackets (kumo-hijiki) and cloud-pattern bearing blocks (kumo-to). These specific "cloud-pattern" brackets are unknown on the continent and are thus probably Japanese in origin. Their distinctive detail is the "tongue" or zetsu that decorates the underside of the transverse beam. This complex architectural system - every bit as complex as the Doric order - was derived from Chinese traditions, though the Japanese quickly developed their own manner of executing it. The Middle Gate is odd in having 4 bays not 5, since normally an odd number was required in order that the central bay act as the passage. Here, it is a column that stands on the axis instead. The columns of the Middle Gate, like those elsewhere in the monastery, have entasis - the swelling that we have seen in columns of the Greeks and Romans. The upper stories of the pagoda are successively diminished in scale, so that the 5th story timberwork is 1/2 that of the ground story. The structure is constructed following a module about 35 cm; thus the central bay on the ground level is 10 units wide, whereas the flanking ones are 7. The width of each floor is diminished by 3 modules each: on the second floor the central bay is 9 units wide and the flanking ones are 6 each; on the next they are 8 and 5, then 7 and 5; on the top, there are 2 bays, each 6 units wide. Throughout all this diminution, however, the wooden elements stay the same size, and thus the elevation becomes more and more crowded as you go up. The framing corridor encircling the main precinct is, surprisingly, not symmetrical: it has 11 bays to the right of the entry, and 10 to the left. This is done to reflect the asymmetry of tall, narrow pagoda and the broader kondo.
Note the "rainbow" beams
15-1,8,9,&10 , Indian, Great Stupa at Sanchi (with detail of gate and yakshi), 3 BCE to 1 CE
- To Bring worshipers and Buddhist monks closer to enlightenment
- outermost area with stone railings; ornamentations, medallions, low relief
- decorated with elaborate sculptural reliefs, while stupa was not decorated
- depicted the Jataka tales
tales that tell the story of the buddha's previously incarnated lives before he became the Buddha
15-14 [15-13] Indian, Frieze from Gandhara with Life of Buddha (birth, enlightenment, first sermon, and death), second century CE
the Buddha's birth at Lumbini, his enlightenment at Bodh Gaya, his first sermon at Sarnath, and his death at Kushinagara.
In the final section of the frieze, the parinirvana, the Buddha lies dying among his devotees, some of whom wail in grief, while one monk, who realizes that the Buddha has been permanently released from suffering, remains tranquil in meditation.
This Gandharan frieze is one of the earliest pictorial narrative cycles in which the Buddha appears in human form. It recounts the Buddha's life story from his birth at Lumbini to his death at Kushinagara.
The type of hierarchical composition in which a large central figure sits between balanced tiers of smaller onlookers is also common in Roman imperial art.
15-19 [15-17] Indian, Boar Avatar of Vishnu Rescues the Earth, early fifth century CE
The oldest Hindu cave temples are at Udayagiri, a site that also boasts some of the earliest Hindu stone sculptures, such as this huge relief of Vishnu as the boar Varaha rescuing the earth.
16-1 Chinese, Qin Dynasty, Army of the Tomb of the Emperor, ca. 210 BCE
Located at the burial mound of the first Emperor of Qin, Shi Huangdi in Lintong
The tomb contains life sized terra-cotta figures all in different positions along with some bronze horses.
They served as the emperor's body guards in the after life.
Represents power, wealth and the organization it took to build such an army
They created the same molds but would build the figures in different positions
16-12 Chinese, Period of Disunity, Shakyamuni Buddha, 338
The earliest dated Chinese Buddha
Gilded bronze statuette, the material was chosen because buddha was described as golden and radiating light
It is said that the buddha either shows no mudras or misrepresentation of the meditation mudras
16-22 [16-23] Chinese, Northern Song Dynasty, Fan Kuan, Travelers among Mountains and Streams, early 11th century
- composition unfolds in 3 stage
- physically large, 7 ft high and this massive sizes proves how small human our compare to the vast nature
- mist veils the transition to the background
- painting conveys the feeling of climbing mountain leaving the human world to face the great ultimate in a spiritual communion
- layers or short, staccato strokes describe the texture of Rock
- although in contains realistic details, the landscape represent no specific place
17-6 Japanese, Ise Jingu
Early Japanese architecture was primarily a wood architecture, since stone was relatively scarce and used mainly for retaining walls and royal tombs. Because of the perishability of wood construction, the early history of Japanese architecture is murky. This is why the Ise Jingu (Ise Shrine) is so important. The unification of Shinto with the spirit of the emperor led to the creation of the Ise Jingu (Ise Shrine), which has no parallel in the history of architecture. Every 20 years for the last 1500 years, it is rebuilt, identically, with virgin old-growth timber. The current one was built in 2013, and so in a real sense is both 4 years old and 1500 years old. In a forest in southern Honshu, most revered shrine in Japan
17-14 Japanese, Tale of Genji, ﬁrst half of 12th century
17-17 Japanese, Portrait statue of the Priest Shunjobo, early 13th century
6-3 Etruscan, Archaic, Model of a typical Temple, 6th century BCE
6-4 Etruscan, Archaic, Apulu, ca. 510-500 BCE
6-12 [6-11] Etruscan, Classical, Capitoline Wolf, ca. 500-480 BCE
7-3 Roman, Republican, Temple of Portunus, ca. 75 BCE
7-1 [7-56] & 7-56 [7-57] Roman, High Empire, Column Base of Antoninus Pius, ca. 161 CE
7-9 Roman, Republican, General from Tivoli, ca. 75-50 BCE
-Greek Herotic Body
-Old face is symbolizing power, wisdom, and leadership
7-1 [7-56] & 7-56 [7-57] Roman, High Empire, Column Base of Antoninus Pius, ca. 161 CE
7-27 Roman, Early Empire, Augustus Primaporta, ca. 20 BCE
-idealized but still recognizable
-youthful in all portraits
-comparing himself to Greco-Roman Gods-wearing a cuirass(breast plate)-cupid and dolphin
- Augustus claimed to be descended from Goddess Venus
7-73&74 [7-76&77] Roman, Late Empire, Arch of Constantine with Distribution of Largess, 312-315 CE
8-7 Late Antique, Christian Sarcophagus, ca. 270
8-1 [8-8] Late Antique, Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus, c. 359
8-9&10 Late Antique, Old Saint Peter's, begun ca. 319
8-16 Late Antique, Suicide of Judas and Crucifixion, early 5th century
9-13 Byzantine, Early Byzantine, Justinian, Bishop Maximianus and Attendants, ca. 547
9-19 Byzantine, Early Byzantine, Icon of Virgin and Child between Saints, 6th or early 7th century
9-34 [9-33] Byzantine, Late Byzantine, Icon of Christ as Savior of Souls, early 14th century
10-2 Islamic, Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem, 687-692
10-7&8 Islamic, Great Mosque in Kairouan, ca. 836-875
10-28 Islamic, Mihrab from Isfahan, ca. 1354
10-36 Islamic, Canteen, ca. 1240-1250
9-25 [9-24] Byzantine, Middle Byzantine, Crucifixion, ca. 1090-1100
draped garment worn by citizen Roman men
"truth-like" a word used to describe the visual style of Roman portraits which record aspects of individual likeness but also encode symbolic ideal qualities.
name for a Roman breastplate. often included in male portraiture to symbolize a military career.
the large cloak/wrap worn by a Roman general, often used to symbolize military status.
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