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BC Science 10 Provincial Notes
The set is still incomplete
Terms in this set (158)
a characteristic that enables organisms to better survive and reproduce
an area with similar antibiotic factors which result in similar biotic ones
anywhere on Earth living things exist; the surface of the Earth
the average conditions of the atmosphere in a large region over 30 years or more
How can similar biomes exist far apart?
If abiotic and biotic conditions are the same
rocks/soil, precipitation, temperature, air, wind patterns, wind currents, sunlight (amount of light coming through), ocean currents, latitude, elevation
biotic factors (some of them)
plants, animals, bacteria, fungi
What are the eight terrestrial biomes?
The tundra, the desert, the grasslands, permanent ice, temperate deciduous forest, temperate rain forest, tropical rain forest, and the boreal forest.
- far north across Canada, Russia, Finland and Scandinavia
- permafrost (permanently frozen soil)
- plants grow close to the ground so they can absorb warmth and be sheltered
- cold and dark most of the year
- found around latitude 30 degrees north and south
- rainfall is minimal (25 cm annually)
- soil is often salty because minerals don't get washed away
- dry regions in the interior of the continents above 30 degrees north latitude and 30 degrees south latitude
- rainfall is minimal (25 cm annually)
- precipitation falls as snow; rain in the spring
- occurs in temperate and tropical regions
- covered with grasses that have deep roots that are well adapted for drought
- polar land masses and large polar ice caps of Arctice, Greenland, and Antarctica
- strong winds, little soil, and little fresh water
- freezing conditions all-year round
Temperature Deciduous Forest
- temperate regions, mostly eastern North America, eastern Asia, and western Europe (23.5 degrees north latitude)
- deciduous trees (trees that lose their leaves during the winter)
- large seasonal changes
- along coastlines where ocean winds drop large amounts of moisture
- cool and wet, allowing trees (mostly evergreens) to grow tall
- wide band around the equator
- wet and warm all-year round (the sun shines straight down and warm air holds more moisture than cooler air)
- dense canopy of tall trees
- rough terrain and wet marsh land
- coniferous trees
- below freezing half the year
Certain characteristics that help identify biomes
- temperature and precipitation are two of the most important abiotic factors
- other facts include latitude, elevation, and ocean currents
- distance north and south from the equator
- it influence both temperature and precipitation
How does elevation influence biomes?
Higher elevation has less air and therefore less heat is retained.
Where are temperate biomes found?
They are found where warm currents meet land.
They carry warmth and moisture to coastal areas.
shows the average temperature and precipitation for a location over a period of 30 years or more.
- a physical feature that helps an organism survive
- example: a wolf has large paws that helps for running in the snow
- a physical or chemical event inside the body of an organism that allows it to survive
- example: a wolf maintains a constant body temperature
- a behavior that helps and organism to survive
- example: a wolf hunts in packs to better the chances of catching prey
- the variety and number of different individuals and species in an ecosystem
- healthy ecosystems generally have high biodiversity
- most biodiversity losses occur form the loss of habitat
- symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is neither helped nor harmed
- examples: barnacles on a whale; the clown fish in the anemone
- all the populations of the different species that interact in a specific environment or ecosystem
- a harmful interaction between two or more organisms that can occur when organisms compete for the same resource in the same location
- it limits the size and health of an individual or perhaps a population
- example: the miniature deer from England was brought to Australia but because of all the good food it was able to eat, it was able to grow to the size of a normal deer
the order of biotic interactions and relationships in an ecosystem: organism, population, community, ecosystem, biosphere
- part of a biome in which abiotic components interact with biotic components
- it can take up many hectares or it can be the size of an old log
the place in which an organism lives
- a symbiotic relationship between two organisms where both organisms benefit
- example: a bee gathering nectar from a flower
- the special role an organism plays in an ecosystem, including the way in which its contributes to and fits into its environment
- how an organism fits into its environment physically, chemically, and biologically
- no two organisms can have an identical niche otherwise the competition is too tough
- a symbiotic relationship in which one species benefits and another is harmed
- example: hookworm living in dogs
a process in which carbon dioxide enters the leaves of plants and reacts with water in the presence of sunlight to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
- predator-prey interactions in which one organism (the predator) eats all or part of another organism (the prey)
- relationship between the 'eaters' and the 'eaten'
- the number of predators and prey influence each other; the predator population cycle is dependent on the prey's population
the interaction between members of two different species that live together in a close association
What is historical ecology?
It is the study of natural materials in an attempt to better understand the ecology of a certain area
What are five abiotic components that allow the biotic components to survive in an ecosystem?
- oxygen: it is produced by green plants and certain microorganisms, and is used by animals and most other microorganisms
- water: a necessity for all life
- nutrients: often enter the food chain with plants and are very important for growth (decomposition is a major source of nutrients)
- light: it is required for photosynthesis which is the process in plants that converts and stores the the sun's energy into starches and carbohydrates
- soil: not only contains water and nutrients but it is also homes to many plants and animals
- refers to all the memebrs of a certains species within an ecosystem
- one species in one place at one time
refers to all of the organism within an ecosystem that have the same structure and who can reproduce with each other and make fertile young
What sort of adaptations do predators have to help them catch their prey?
- large claws
- large, sharp teeth
- keen sense of smell
- good eyesight
What sort of adaptations do prey have to help them avoid predators?
- spines and shells
- good hearing
- mimicry (the ability to look like something else that is unappetizing to the predator)
What does the predator tend to take out from the prey population?
- the old
- the sick
- the undefended young
- the total mass of all living thins in a given area
- sometimes used to convert the mass of organic materials used to produce biofuels such as biogas
- generally measured in g/m2 or kg/m2
- secondary or tertiary consumers
- eat other consumers (e.g. herbivores)
- adaptations: short digestive tract and sharp teeth
- organism that eat something that was already alive
- they get their energy by feeding on producers or other consumers
the breakdown of wastes or dead organisms through the process of biodegredation
- consumers that obtain energy and nutrients from dead and waster matter
- also called decomposers
- includes small insects, earth worms, bacteria, fungi
- they have their own, seperate food chains
- they are very numerous
- show flow of energy in an ecosystem in one pathway
- each step is a trophic level (a feeding and niche relationship)
- producers: 1st trophic level
- primary consumers: 2nd trophic level
- secondary consumers: 3rd trophic level
- tertiary consumers: 4th trophic level
- show the changes in available energy from one trophic level to another in a food chain
- also called ecological pyramid, trophic pyramid, or biotic pyramid
- energy enters at the first trophic level (producers), where there is a large amount of biomass, and therefore much energy
- it takes large quantities of organism in one trophic level to meet the energy needs of the next trophic level (each level loses large amounts of energy it gathers through basic processes of living; there is very little energy left over for growth or increase in biomass)
- has multiple food chains that are interconnected
- models of the feeding relationships in an ecosystem
- arrows in a food web represent the flow of energy and nutrients
- following the arrows lead to the top, the carnivore(s)
- primary consumers
- only eats plants
- adaptation: teeth that are mostly molars
- consumers that eat both plants and animals
- examples: humans and bears
- organism that produce food from inorganic sources
- plants are producers because they produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide, water, and the sun's energy
How does an organism interact with the ecosytem?
- by obtaining food from the ecosystem
- by contributing energy to the ecosystem (getting eaten)
Name three different methods scientist use to represent energy moving through ecosystems
- food chains
- food webs
- food pyramids
What trophic level do detrivores feed at?
They feed at every trophic level.
How much energy taken in by consumers is used in chemical reactions in the body and is lost as heat energy?
80-90% percent of energy
What can ecological pyramids show?
They can show biomass, population, or energy flow.
The amount of life an ecosystem can contain is based on what?
It is based on the bottom of the ecological pyramid, where producers capture energy from the sun.
- chemicals required for growth and other life processes
- move through the biosphere in nutrient cycle or exchanges
- often accumulate in areas called stores
- without interference, generally the amount of nutrients flowing a store equals the amount of nutrients flowing out
What human activities can upset the natural balance of nutrient cycles?
- land clearing
- urban expansion
- motorized transportation
How do human activities upset the natural balance of nutrient cycles? Why is that bad?
- they can increase the level of nutrients more quickly than the stores can absorb
- excess nutrients in the biosphere can have unexpected consequences
What are the five chemical elements required for life?
refers to an organism slowly building up the amount of chemicals in their bodies
when the animals at the top of the food pyramid receives huge doses of accumulated chemicals
- the use of microorganisms or plants to help clean up toxic chemicals
- examples: the oil industry uses bacteria to 'eat' oil spills, there are certain natural species that are excellent in bioremendiation
metallic elements that are toxic to organisms
- a vital part of an ecosystem
- once they're gone, the ecosystem collapses
- live on both land and in the water
- are sensitive to chemical changes in the environment, therefore, they are valuable indicators of environmental health
- since 1980s, much of the world's amphibian species have suffered declines in population
- there has also been alarming increases in amphibian birth deformities in that time
- many theories attempt to explain these changes, including drought, increased UV rays, pollution, habitat loss, parasites and diseases
Why do some chemicals accumulate in a living organism?
When the chemicals build up in a living organism, it doesn't break down or it breaks down slowly.
What chemicals bioaccumulate?
- man made chemicals
- many harmful chemicals cannot be decomposed naturally
Do natural things tend to bioaccumulate?
No, there is usually a system to get rid of it.
What is the keystone specie in the kelp forest? What does it do?
- sea otters
- it eats urchins
- sea urchins eat the bottom part of the kelp, so if there were no sea otters, the kelp will decrease and so will all the species living in the kelp forest
What does a kelp forest provide?
- a habitat for hundreds of species
- chemicals that were used for many industrial and electrical applications in the mid 20th century
- they were banned in 1977 because of fears of their environmental impact
- they bioaccumulate and they also have a long half-life (they break down very slowly)
What is an example of bioaccumulation in BC?
the effect of PCBs on the orca that will affect the reproductive cycles of orcas until at least 2030
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
- they contain carbon, like all organic compounds, and remain in water and soil for many years
- chemicals like PCBs and DDT are POPs
Many POPs are insecticides, used to control pest population
- DDt was introduced in 1941 to control mosquito populations and is still used in some places in the world
- like PCBs, DDT also bioaccumulates and has a long life span
What system disorders can DDT in animals cause?
- nervous system disorders
- immune system disorders
- reproductive system disorders
Name three heavy metals
- levels of lead in the soil have increased due to human activities
- it is not considered safe at any level
- many electronics contain lead and must be recycled carefully
- lead can cause anemia, nervous, and reproductive system damage
- it is found in low levels naturally
- used to manufacture of plastics and nickel-cadmium batteries
- it is toxic to earthworms and causes many health problems in fish
- it causes lung diseases, cancer, and nervous and immune system damage
What is the main source of cadmium exposure in humans?
The main source of cadmium exposure is cigarette smoke
- found naturally
- had entered ecosystems through the burning of fossil fuels, waste incineration, mining, and the manufacture of items like batteries
- it bioaccumulates in the brain, heart, and kidneys of many animals
- also called divergent evolution
- when many different species appear from one original series
- the changes in the biotic characteristics in an area over time
- over time, the life in an area changes. One group changes the environment so the next group can come in
- change over time
- the process where individuals with advantages are better able to reproduce and pass along their traits
- those with unfavourable characteristics have less change to reproduce and pass along their traits
- example: a salmon with a smaller tail may never have a chance to spawn because it can't swim to the correct location
type of succession that begins with nothing but bare rock
- type of succession that occurs after a major disturbance in an area that already has soil and once had living organisms
- soil remains for plant growth, and contains seeds, microorganisms, earthworms, and insects
- basically, the stuff above the dirt is taken away, but the dirt and the things in it is still there
Examples of natural selection in humans
- initially, there would have been tall and short people in both groups in Africa.
- in the desert, being short and small was an advantage because they needed less water and less food. The people that were small lived longer and reproduced more, so the small characteristic became dominant in the grup
- in the grasslands, tall people had more success to survive because they were able to run longer and faster, getting more food. They were able to live longer and reproduce more, making the all gene become more dominant.
What is the most famous example of natural selection? Why?
- The Galapagos Islands, off the coast of Ecuador
- there are many species on the islands are very similar to each other, and also to species on the South American continent (examples: there are thirteen species of finch on the islands that are descended from a single finch species from the mainland, and each species has very unique characteristics that allows them to thrive in their own niches, and not compete with other finches for resources)
What is an example of a situation where primary succession happens?
- when glaciers scrape away dirt
- a volcano erupts
How long does "good" dirt take to make?
It takes about 10 000 years
What is "good" dirt? How can it be made?
- it is broken down rock with some organic matter
- the wind carries spores of lichens and organisms and organisms that can survive and eventually, combined with the weathering of rock, help form soil
What are the first organisms to survive and reproduce called? What happens to them?
- they are called pioneer species
- they alter the biotic and abiotic environment in some way (soil improves, plants are able to grow, animals begin to appear)
What are the steps of primary succession?
- for the first nine and a half thousand years there is weathering and erosion
- then, the first pioneer species are usually lichens because they don't need dirt (lichens are half fungi, the side that provides water, and half algae, this side provides food) and they are soil starters because they give some organics and release acids that accelerate the breakdown of rocks
- second to come in are mosses: they are great soil builders because their feathery bits grab dust and pull it down and mosses holds water and changes the environment
- after mosses, grass comes in because they have light seeds that blow in the wind
- grass attracts animals, like birds, which then attracts more plants, like berry shrubs.
- after that, more animals arrive
- they are very stable and can appear to be unchanging over long periods of time
- they're also known as climax communities but "mature" correctly implies that there are still changes occurring, albeit more slowly
Why is secondary succession much more rapid than primary succession?
- there is already soil, seeds, and insects, so it only lasts decades
- typically, there is a surrounding area that is the source of seeds, bacteria, etc.
Name three disturbances that can affect mature communities
- insects infestations
- water is not contained withing natural or artificial barriers
- generally occurs in locations where water levels can change rapidly
- it can result in soil erosion, as wellas the spread of pollutants and harmful bacteria associated with wastes
- climate change and global warming may be increasing incidents of flooding
- a tsunami occurs when huge waves, from larger earthquakes or volcanic eruptions, flood coastal areas
- occurs when an area receives a lower than average amount of rainfall over a very long period of time
- prolonged drought can have severe effects on organisms
- many insects play important roles in their ecosystem, even insects that appear destructive, such as the mountain pine beetle, actually play a role in the renewal of the forest: the beetles have a symbiotic relationship with a species of fungus that inhibits the trees' ability to use resin for protection
- however, when normal conditions are changed, infestations can occur: tress can be stressed from overcrowding, drought, or animal grazing, and do not resist the insects as effectively; a warmer climate, and lack of forest fires, allows the insects to spread much more effectively than in the past
- not only are the trees affected, but so is the entire forest ecosystem, as well as many human industries relying on the forest
this is when you're looking at sustainable plants
the clearing or logging of forest for human use
the splitting of large habitats into smaller ones, resulting in disrupted natural activities for plants and animals
how humans use the land around them for urban development, agriculture, industry, mining, and forestry
using something so much that it reduces them greatly or gets rid of them completely
- also called resource use
- the ways we obtain and use naturally occurring materials
ecosystems that contain completely waterlogged soil for long periods of time
Why are wetlands sometimes called the 'kidneys of the Earth'?
They contain high biodiversity and also filter many impurities out of the water that slowly flows through them
What other purposes do wetlands have?
- they can help prevent flooding because they hold large amounts of water
- they are a source of food for migrating birds
it means humans can use resources but use it in a way that the population and communities are not compromised
refers to the loss of habitats due to human activity
Land use effect: the continuing expansion of populations into ecosystems can affect grasslands, forests, wetlands, and farmland. Urbanization causes biodiversity losses, greater reliance on motorized vehicles, and increased energy consumption.
Sustainable approach: some cities are redeveloping industrial areas or buildings. These projects often include a mix of residences, businesses, and some industries. Waste treatment, storm water collection, native plantings, and other green areas to support native species and human activities are often part of the redevelopment plan. It doesn't pave over everything.
Land use effect: Clear-cutting large areas of forest at once and construction steep switchback roads to harvest the timber have resulted in erosion and stream habitat destruction.
Sustainable approach: Some forestry companies use forest management practices that allow more trees to remain uncut and include streambed restoration and less harmful road building. These practices consider both ecosystem functions and the economic needs of local communities. (Patch-cutting helps secondary succession.)
Land use effect: Towns, cities, agricultural fields, and cattle ranches have covered most of our grasslands. Livestock grazing, recreational vehicles, and introduced plants have altered this ecosystem.
Sustainable approach: Grasslands management plans have been developed to protect the health and and functions of natural grasslands and provide productive grazing lands. The success of these plans relies on understanding the relationships between soil and vegetation types, plant succession, and weed control. This is protecting native species and make sure that it stays true.
- also called foreign species, non-native species, exotic species, or alien species
- a new species of plants or animals introduced to an area
type of introduced species that have a negative impact on the native species
plants and animals that naturally inhabit the area
What percentage of introduced species are invasive species?
What are the reasons that the number of invasive species go way up and override the native species?
- they may be able to reproduce fast
- competition: while the native species have an established balance, the invasive species can throw off this balance
- predation: if the invasive species is a predator, it may have a huge advantage, as the native species may have no methods to survive. It may also not have any predators
- disease and parasitism: by weakening certain species, a microorganism invading an ecosystem can drastically alter the entire ecosystem and the niches within it
- habitat alteration: some invasive species can change the physical structure of the ecosystem by digging, burrowing, blocking sunlight, or changing the chemistry of the ecosystem
Name four invasive species in BC
- eurasian milfoil
- norway rat
- american bullfrog
- european starling
- reproduce fast
- live in contaminated water
- out compete native species
- habitat alteration
- predation; is a predator
- feed on everything
- high reproduction
- no predators
- habitat alteration
- preys on smaller creatures like ducks and small mammals
- habitat alteration
- out compete for food and nesting sites
- no natural predators
The Garry Oak Ecosystem
- Garry oak trees are a keystone species
- 95% of the original ecosystem has been lost to urban development, and the remaining 5% is threatened by invasive species
- Garry oak forests may be better suited to survive int he future than douglas fir forests
- they are our built in climate change possibility because it can thrive in warmer conditions
What are the species that is the Garry oak tree ecosystem's threats?
- scotch broom
- english ivy
- grey squirrel
- gypsy moth larvae
What is GOERT and what is their purpose?
- The Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team
- their purpose is to save several areas of the garry oak ecosystem in BC (they have many representative from many groups including BC government, First Nations, conservationists, scientists, and businesses.)
- a vector quantity that describes the straight line distance and directions from one point to another (it describes how much an object's position had changed)
- final position minus initial position
- the difference betwen the final and initial times
- final time minus initial time
refers to the size of a measurement or the amount you are counting
scalar quantities (scalars)
quantities that describe magnitude but do not include direction (e.g. 25 seconds)
vector quantities (vectors)
quantities that describe magnitude and also include direction (e.g. 5 km north)
a scalar quantity that describes the length of a path between two points or locations (e.g. a person ran a distance of 400 km)
a vector quantity that describes a specific point relative to a reference point (e.g. the school is 3.0 km east of my house)
When using vector quantities, opposite directions are given opposite signs
- west, south, left, and down are negative (35m to the left = -35m)
- east, north, right, and up are positive (10m [N] = 10m)
Steps to solve formulas with vector quantities and signs
- write down knowns
- write down formula
- apply knows to formula
properties of object in uniform motion
- travel equal displacements in equal time intervals
- do not speed up, slow down, or change direction
- have a constant velocity
- it will graph in a straight line
- motions of an object can be analyzed by drawing this graph
- plots position data on the vertical axis (y axis) and time data on the horizontal axis (x axis)
- refers to whether a line is horizontal or goes up and down at an angle
- positive slope (positive direction): slant up to the right
- zero slop (no velocity): horizontal line and indicates that the object is stationary
- negative slope (negative direction): slants down to the right
- the distance an object travels during a give time interval divided by the time interval
- it is a scalar quantity
- it's SI unit is meters per second (m/s)
- it uses distance
- the displacement of an object during the time interval divided byt he time interval
- descries how fast an object's position is changing
- velocity uses displacement
- if your displacement is zero then your velocity is zero
- it is a vector quantity and must include direction
- the direction of he velocity is the same as the direction of the displacement
- it's SI unit is m/s or km/h
Calculating the slope of the position-time graph
- slope of the graph is represented by rise/run
- this slope represents the change in the y-axis divided by the change in the x-axis
- the slope is the change in position divided by the change in time
- the steeper the slope the greater the change in displacement during the same time interval
Calculating average velocity
average velocity equals displacement divided by time
displacement equals velocity times time
time equals displacement divided by average velocity
Converting between m/s and km/h
- change km to m: 1 km = 1000 m
- change h to s: 1h = 3600s
- therefore multiply by 1000 and divide by 3600 or divide the speed in km/h by 3.6 to obtain speed in m/s
- the rate of change in velocity
- this change in velocity can be due to a change in speed and/or a change in direction
positive and negative acceleration
- the direction of the acceleration is the same as the direction of the change in velocity
- acceleration that is opposite the direction of motion is sometimes called deceleration
Examples of acceleration
- car speeding up in a forward direction: forward direction is positive (+) and the change in velocity is positive (+), therefore the acceleration is positive
- car slowing down in the forward direction: forward direction is positive (+) and the change in velocity is negative (-), therefore the acceleration is negative
- car speeding up in the backward direction: backward direction is negative (-), and change in velocity is (+), therefore the acceleration is negative
- car slowing down in the backwards direction: backward direction is negative (-) and chance in velocity is negative (-), therefore the acceleration is positive (+)
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