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Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
Observational Learning or Social Learning
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance. Then, she gives him candy for a clearly spoken word, after that, she will give him candy only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
Which of the following are most clearly activated both by picking up a spoon, and by simply watching another person pick up a spoon?
Ability to learn from
experience, solve problems, and use
knowledge to adapt to new situations
"general intelligence factor" underlies all
Charles Spearman (early 1900's)One or Many
Basis of Comparison, Made from pretesting large numbers (of population
you want to test)
Global increase in intelligence over the last fift
years, an average increase of over three IQ points per
IQ 2 or more SD below mean, Adaptive skill
before age 18
Perspectives on Motivation
1. Instinct Theory (replaced
by the evolutionary
2. Drive-Reduction Theory
3. Arousal Theory
4. Hierarchy of Motives
James-Lange theory of emotions
expects greatly diminished emotions because they
believed that to experience emotion you
must first perceive your body's arousal.
Cannon Bard Theory
expects you to experience emotions normally because
they believed emotions occur separately
from (though simultaneously with) the
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