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38 terms

Psychology Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate
Classical Conditioning
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying
Operant Conditioning
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates
Observational Learning or Social Learning
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance. Then, she gives him candy for a clearly spoken word, after that, she will give him candy only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of
Shaping
Which of the following are most clearly activated both by picking up a spoon, and by simply watching another person pick up a spoon?
Mirror Neurons
Intelligence
Ability to learn from
experience, solve problems, and use
knowledge to adapt to new situations
G factor
"general intelligence factor" underlies all
intelligent behavior
Charles Spearman (early 1900's)One or Many
Sternberg's three intelligences
Analytical (academic),Creative, Practical
Perceive emotion
Recognize emotions in faces,
music and stories
Understand emotion
Predict emotions, how they
change and blend
Manage emotion
Express emotions in different
situations
Use emotion
Utilize emotions to adapt or be
creative
Alfred Binet
The first Intelligence test,Mental age
Lewis Terman
Revised Binet's test for California schools, Stanford-Binet Test
IQ
Intelligence Quotient; Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100
Welscher Tests
Verbal IQ,Performance IQ,and Full Scale IQ
Principals of Test Construction
Standardized, reliable, valid
Standardization
Basis of Comparison, Made from pretesting large numbers (of population
you want to test)
Reliability
Test needs to yield dependably consistent scores.
Checked by retesting people
Validity
Test needs to measure what it is supposed to
Flynn Effect
Global increase in intelligence over the last fift
years, an average increase of over three IQ points per
decade
Aptitude tests
Predict ability to learn a skill
Achievement tests
Reflect what you have learned
Mental Retardation
IQ 2 or more SD below mean, Adaptive skill
deficits,Various degrees,Origination
before age 18
Giftedness
IQ 2 SD above
mean standard
Motivation
the degree to which
you feel compelled to reach the
goal state.
Perspectives on Motivation
1. Instinct Theory (replaced
by the evolutionary
perspective)
2. Drive-Reduction Theory
3. Arousal Theory
4. Hierarchy of Motives
Emotion
A state of either positive or negative activation
James-Lange theory of emotions
expects greatly diminished emotions because they
believed that to experience emotion you
must first perceive your body's arousal.
Cannon Bard Theory
expects you to experience emotions normally because
they believed emotions occur separately
from (though simultaneously with) the
body's arousal.
Sperling Experiment
Sensory Memory and Iconic Memory`
Encoding
Getting info in
Storage
Holding onto info
Retrieval
Getting info out
Retrieval Failure
Tip of the tongue phenomenon
Proactive interference
Retroactive interference
Heuristics
Simple thinking strategies
Algorithms
exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution
Peterson and Peterson
experiment revealed how time between remembering something and having to recall it affected the life of a memory.