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Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate

Classical Conditioning

Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying

Operant Conditioning

After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates

Observational Learning or Social Learning

Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance. Then, she gives him candy for a clearly spoken word, after that, she will give him candy only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of


Which of the following are most clearly activated both by picking up a spoon, and by simply watching another person pick up a spoon?

Mirror Neurons


Ability to learn from
experience, solve problems, and use
knowledge to adapt to new situations

G factor

"general intelligence factor" underlies all
intelligent behavior
Charles Spearman (early 1900's)One or Many

Sternberg's three intelligences

Analytical (academic),Creative, Practical

Perceive emotion

Recognize emotions in faces,
music and stories

Understand emotion

Predict emotions, how they
change and blend

Manage emotion

Express emotions in different

Use emotion

Utilize emotions to adapt or be

Alfred Binet

The first Intelligence test,Mental age

Lewis Terman

Revised Binet's test for California schools, Stanford-Binet Test


Intelligence Quotient; Mental Age/Chronological Age x 100

Welscher Tests

Verbal IQ,Performance IQ,and Full Scale IQ

Principals of Test Construction

Standardized, reliable, valid


Basis of Comparison, Made from pretesting large numbers (of population
you want to test)


Test needs to yield dependably consistent scores.
Checked by retesting people


Test needs to measure what it is supposed to

Flynn Effect

Global increase in intelligence over the last fift
years, an average increase of over three IQ points per

Aptitude tests

Predict ability to learn a skill

Achievement tests

Reflect what you have learned

Mental Retardation

IQ 2 or more SD below mean, Adaptive skill
deficits,Various degrees,Origination
before age 18


IQ 2 SD above
mean standard


the degree to which
you feel compelled to reach the
goal state.

Perspectives on Motivation

1. Instinct Theory (replaced
by the evolutionary
2. Drive-Reduction Theory
3. Arousal Theory
4. Hierarchy of Motives


A state of either positive or negative activation

James-Lange theory of emotions

expects greatly diminished emotions because they
believed that to experience emotion you
must first perceive your body's arousal.

Cannon Bard Theory

expects you to experience emotions normally because
they believed emotions occur separately
from (though simultaneously with) the
body's arousal.

Sperling Experiment

Sensory Memory and Iconic Memory`


Getting info in


Holding onto info


Getting info out

Retrieval Failure

Tip of the tongue phenomenon
Proactive interference
Retroactive interference


Simple thinking strategies


exhaust all possibilities before arriving at a solution

Peterson and Peterson

experiment revealed how time between remembering something and having to recall it affected the life of a memory.

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