Upgrade to remove ads
TExES Physical Education EC-12 158
Terms in this set (177)
Stages of Motor Learning
Children progress from simple reflexes to basic movements such as sitting, crawling, creeping, standing, and walking.
Stages of Motor Learning
Children learn more complex motor patterns including running, climbing, jumping, balancing, catching, and throwing.
Stages of Motor Learning
During late childhood, children learn more specific movement skills. In addition, the basic motor patterns learned in Stage 2 become more fluid and automatic.
Stages of Motor Learning
During adolescence, children continue to develop general and specific motor skills and master specialized movements. At this point, factors including practice, motivation, and talent begin to affect the level of further development.
Frequent, structured practice of motor skills enhances skill development in children.
When a skill is learned it goes into short term memory and receives positive feedback. The skill may eventually go into their long-term memory, creating memory that is more permanent. Encourage the performer and helps in making the performer remember every aspect of the performance.
Information received by the athlete as a direct result of producing a movement through the kinesthetic senses- e.g. feeling from muscles, joints, and balance.
Information not inherent in the movement itself but which improves intrinsic feedback (this is also known as augmented feedback).
_____ feedback enables the athlete to establish a kinesthetic reference for the correct movement.
Powerful tool in motor skill development. Requires students to assess their own skills and abilities encourages students to reflect upon their current skill level and take control of the development process.
Many physical education instructors believe that _____ learning is the most effective method of learning motor skills.
_____ observation of proper skill performance by an instructor or peer is generally more effective in promoting skill development than verbal instructions.
Perceptual- motor development
One's ability to receive, interpret, and respond successfully to sensory signals coming from the environment.
Adolescents with _______ motor coordination problems are at risk for poor school performance, low self-esteem, and inadequate physical activity participation.
Is a person's understanding of his or her own body parts and their capability of movement.
Is the ability to make decisions about an object's positional changes in space. (awareness of three-dimensional space position changes)
Developing spatial awareness requires two sequential phases:
1. Identifying the location of objects in relation to one's own body in space.
2. Locating more than one object in relation to each object and independent of ones own body.
Is the knowledge of balance, time and force and how they relate to athletic movements and activities.
The general perceptions around them about the importance of fitness activities will necessarily have an effect on their own choice regarding physical activity. "playground to Play Station"
Psychological influences on motor development and fitness include a student's mental well-being, perceptions of fitness activities, and level of comfort in a fitness-training environment (both alone and within a group).
Students experiencing depression....
will tend to be apathetic and lack both the energy and inclination to participate in fitness activities. As a result, their motor development and fitness levels will suffer.
The economic situation of students can affect their motor development and fitness because lack of resources and detract from the ability of parents to provide access to extra-curricular activities that promote development, proper fitness training equipment, and even adequate nutrition.
Factors that can influence motor development and fitness relate to the student's home climate concerning physical activity. A student's own feelings toward physical activity often reflect the degree to which caregivers and role models are athletically inclined and have a positive attitude towards physical activity. The parent doesn't have to be athletically inclined , so much as it is important for them to encourage their child to explore fitness activities that could suit them.
Environmental and Health
Genetic make-up (i.e. gender, age, ethnicity) has a big influence on growth and development. Various physical and environmental factors directly affect one's personal health and fitness. Poor habits, living conditions, disease or disability can affect a person in a negative manner.
What are the 4 different types of play in childhood link motor development with the other aspects of development?
Cognitive, social, physical, and emotional play. They all help in the overall development of a child.
The manner in which children
hop, jump, skip, run, climb, and play....
greatly facilitates their motor and physical development and helps to build other aspects of their personality.
An instructor should have the ability to identify performance errors by observing a student's ______ principles of motion during the performance of a skill.
Is a subjective, observational approach to identifying errors in the form, style, or mechanics of a skill.
Quantitative measures of a movent's end result, to evaluate objectively fundamental skills. How far, how fast, how high, or how many are the quantitative measures of product assessments.
Criterion-referenced test (superior to a standardized test)
Standardized norm-referenced test
Can provide valid and reliable data for objectively measuring fundamental skills.
Instructors can use _________-referenced standards to diagnose weaknesses and correct errors in skill performance because such performance standards define appropriate levels of achievement.
move an individual from one point to another.
Crawling, creeping, walking, running, jumping, vaulting, leaping, hopping, galloping, sliding, body rolling, climbing.
are stability skills where the movement requires little or no movement of one's base of support and does not result in change of position.
Bending, dodging, stretching, twisting, turning, swinging, pushing, pulling.
Use body parts to propel or receive an object, controlling objects primarily with the hands and feet.
Bouncing/Dribbling, catching, kicking, rolling, striking, throwing, trapping.
What are 2 types of Manipulative skills?
Receptive (catch + trap)
Propulsive (throw, strike, kick)
movement around a joint where two body parts meet.
sharp change of direction from original line of movement such as away from a person or object.
extending/hyper-extending joints to make body parts as straight or as long as possible.
rotating body/body parts around an axis with stationary base.
circular moving of the body through space releasing the base of support.
circular/pendular movements of the body/body parts below an axis.
same as swinging but movement is above an axis.
applying force against an object or person to move it away from one's body or to move one's body away from the object or person.
executing force to cause objects/people to move toward one's body.
initiating force to an object to instill contact with a surface.
using one or both arms to project an object into midair away from the body.
without the use of the hands, receiving and controlling a ball.
include responding and moving the body in time with the beat, tempo, or pitch of music.
The overhand throw consists of a sequence of four movements:
A stride, hip rotation, trunk rotation, and forward arm movement.
Development of the overhand throwing motion in children occurs in three stages:
Elementary stage- the child throws mainly with the arm and does not incorporate the other body movements.(foot stride on the same side as the throwing arm)
Mature stage- the thrower brings the arm backward in preparation for the throw. Body rotation is still limited.
Advanced stage- incorporate all the elements of the overhand throw. (thrower displays an obvious stride and body rotation.)
Muscles used in the Underhand Throw
Posterior deltoid, latissimus dorsi, teres major, anterior deltoid, biceps.
Fundamental Movement skills
form an indispensable part of all physical activity and physical education. Such basic movement skills are extremely important for children in their early years. These particular skills include running, stopping, changing direction, starting, hopping, skipping, and rolling.
Sequential development and activities for LOCOMOTOR skills acquisition.
crawl, creep, walk, run, jump, hop, gallop, slide, leap, skip, step-hop.
Sequential development and activities for NONLOCOMOTOR skill aquisition.
stretch, bend, sit, shake, turn, rock and sway, swing, twist, dodge, and fall.
Sequential development for Manipulative skill.
striking, throwing, kicking, ball rolling, volleying, bouncing, catching, and trapping.
Rhythmic skill development
Dancing is an excellent activity for the development of rhythmic skills.
Skills that help students remain fit and agile. They help students become better performers. Physical educators will often combine a number of object control skills to enhance a child's reflexes.
activities for balance include having children move on their hands and feet, lean, move on lines, and balance and hold shapes while moving.
Activities using the concept of time can include having children move as fast as they can and as slow as they can in specified, times movement patterns.
Activities using the concept of force can include having students use their bodies to produce enough force to move them through space. They can also paddle balls against walls and jump over objects of various heights.
Magnitude of force
Force must overcome the inertia of the object and any other resisting forces for movement to occur.
force applied close to the center of gravity requires a smaller magnitude of force to move the object than does force applied farther from the center of gravity.
force applied farther from the center of gravity requires a smaller magnitude of force to rotate the object than does force applied closer to the center of gravity.
Objects with a fixed point
force applied anywhere other than through the point of fixations results in object rotation.
the capacity to do work.
Gravitational potential energy
potential energy of an object that is in a position where gravity can act on it.
Elastic (strain) potential energy
energy potential of an object to do work while recoiling (or reforming) after stretching, compressing, or twisting.
energy possessed by virtue of motion that increases with speed.
Maintaining equilibrium while receiving a moving object's kinetic energy without sustaining injury or without losing balance while rebounding.
Striking resistive surfaces
the force of impact per unit area decreases when the moving object's area of surface making contact increases and the surface area that the object strikes increases.
Striking non-resistive surfaces
the force of impact decreases if the moving object's area of surface making contact decreases because it is more likely to penetrate.
the axis is between the points of application of the force and the resistance.
the force arm is longer than the resistance arm. (operator applies resistance between the axis and the point of application of force)
the force works at a point between the axis and the resistance. (the resistance arm is always longer than the force arm)
tendency of a body or object to remain in its present state of motion. An object will stay in a prescribed straight path and will move at its given speed unless some force acts to change it.
Projecting objects for vertical distance
The forces of gravity and air resistance prevent vertically projected objects from continuing at their initial velocities.
Projecting the body for vertical distance
For these activities (e.g. vertical leaping), the height of reach of the hand from the ground is the significant factor.
Projecting for vertical distance with a horizontal component
for these activities (high jumping), a running approach to the point of takeoff produces from horizontal velocity even with a 100% vertical takeoff.
Projecting for horizontal distance
a body will continue to travel horizontally until an external force, usually the ground, halts it.
Horizontal projections where take off and landing heights are equal
maximum horizontal distance occurs when the projection angle is 45 degrees.
Horizontal projections where takeoff and landing heights are uneven
the height of an object center of gravity depends on a performer's height and his/her location in relation to the ground upon release or impact of the object.
Vertical plane targets
Accuracy is easiest when using a trajectory that is perpendicular to the target as it coincides with the target face.
Horizontal plane targets
the more vertically the projectile arrives at the target, the greater the likelihood of successfully hitting the target and preventing the object from rolling or sliding away from the target area.
the movement response (acceleration) of a system depends not only on the net external force applied, but also depends on the resistance to movement change (inertia)
The sense of the relative position of neighboring parts of the body. Internal sense that provides feedback solely on the status of the body internally.
refers to the process of aligning or positioning oneself with respect to a specific direction or reference system.
Hand eye coordination
the ability of the visual perception system to coordinate the information received through the eyes to control, guide, and direct the hands in the accomplishment of a given task.
center on the integration of balance and proprioceptive skills to produce movement that effectively manages the weight distribution of the body.
Physiological benefits of physical activity include:
improved: cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength, muscle endurance,flexibility, ability of the body to utilize oxygen. quicker rate of recovery, more lean muscle mass and less body fat, lower resting heart rate, increased cardiac output, lower cholesterol levels.
Psychological benefits of physical activity include
relief of stress, improved mental health, better physical health, reduced mental tension, better resistance to fatigue, better quality of life, more enjoyment of leisure, better capability to handle some stressors, opportunity for successful experiences.
Sociological benefits of physical activity include
the opportunity to spend time with family and friends and make new friends, the opportunity to be part of a team, the opportunity to participate in competitive experiences, the opportunity to experience the thrill of victory.
Voluntary muscles that are attached to bone and are responsible for movement.
Found in the heart. Is striated like skeletal muscle, but differs in that the plasma membrane of the cardiac muscle causes the muscle to beat even when away from the heart.
Involuntary muscle found in the organs and enables functions such as digestion and respiration.
is a connective tissue
is a place where two bones meet
attach bone to bone
attach bone to muscle.
Ball and socket
allows for rotational movement. (shoulder)
Movement is restricted to a single plane. (elbow)
allows for the rotation of the forearm at the elbow and the hands at the wrist.
Central nervous system
consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is responsible for the body's response to environmental stimuli.
The CNS contains fluid filled spaces called ____.
Peripheral nervous system
consists of the nerves that connect the CNS to the rest of the body.
The function of the _______ system is to manufacture proteins called hormones.
circulate in the bloodstream and stimulate actions when they interact with target tissue.
Come from cholesterol and include the sex hormones.
located in the lower brain; signals the pituitary gland.
Located at the base of the hypothalamus; releases growth hormones and anti diuretic hormone (retention of water in kidneys)
located on the trachea; lowers blood calcium levels (calcitonin) and maintains metabolic processes (thyroxine).
located in the testes of the male and ovaries of the female; testes release androgens to support sperm formation and ovaries release estrogen to stimulate uterine lining growth and progesterone to promote uterine lining growth.
secretes insulin to lower blood glucose levels and glucagon to raise blood glucose levels.
The ______ are the primary organs in the excretory system.
is the number of times the heart beats per minute.
is the amount of blood pumped by the left ventricle each time it contracts.
Non-specific immune mechanism
the physical barrier of the body. (skin and mucous)
is the ingestion of foreign particles.
Specific immune mechanism
recognizes specific foreign material and responds by destroying the invader.
is any foreign particle that elicits an immune response.
recognize and latch onto antigens, hopefully destroying them.
is the body's ability to recognize and destroy an antigen before it causes harm.
_____ are antigens given in very small amounts?
are those nutrients that the body needs but cannot make. 4 groups- essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals.
Reproductive maturity in girls
occurs with their first menstruation.
Reproductive maturity in boys
occurs with their first ejaculation of viable sperm.
is the production of the sperm and egg cell.
begins at puberty in the male. One spermatogonia, the diploid precursor of sperm, produces four sperm.
the production of egg cells (ova), is usually complete by the birth of a female.
There are 5 health related components of physical activity
cardio-respiratory or cardiovascular endurance, muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, and body composition.
is the body's ability to sustain aerobic activities for extended periods.
is the muscle groups' ability to contract and support a given amount of weight.
is the muscle groups'ability to contract continually for a period of time and support a given amount of weight.
is the muscle groups' ability to stretch and bend.
is an essential measure of health and fitness. The most important aspects of body composition are body fat percentage and ratio of body fat to muscle.
is exercising at an above normal level to improve physical or physiological capacity. (a higher than normal workload)
is overloading a particular fitness component. In order to improve a component of fitness, you must isolate and specifically work on a single component.
States that once the body adapts to the original load/stress, no further improvement of a component of fitness will occur without the addition of an additional load.
Reversibility of training Principle
all gains in fitness are lost with the discontinuance of a training program.
We can modify overload by varying ____, ____, and ____?
frequency, intensity, time
refers to conditioning or exercise that requires the use of oxygen to derive energy. It is essential for fat loss, energy production, and effective functioning of the cardiovascular system.
Target Heart Rate (THR)
is a desired range of heart rate reached during aerobic exercise, which allows a students heart and lungs to receive the most benefit from a workout.
METs (maximum oxygen uptake)
60%-90% of functional capacity.
Max. heart rate - Resting heart rate x intensity + RHR MHR=220-age Intensity= THR (60% - 80% of MHR-RHR+RHR
[(MHR)-(RHR)] x intensity + RHR.
(MHR - RHR) x .60 + RHR to (MHR - RHR) x .80 +RHR
Cooper's Formula to determine target heart range is
THR= (220 - age) x.60 to (220 - age) x .80
Participants describe how hard they feel they are working based on physical sensations such as muscle fatigue, sweating, heart rate, and breathing rate.
The Borg scale
A quantitative rating system of perceived exertion. Ranges from 6 to 20 with corresponding descriptions.
When you drink too much water during exercise. This causes a low sodium content in the body.
Relates to the ability to perform moderate to high intensity exercise for a prolonged period.
To improve cardiovascular endurance
One must perform continuous and rhythmic exercise involving large muscle groups for at least 20 minutes per day, at least three days per week, at an intensity of at least 55% of maximum heart rate.
Performance of a certain mode of exercise will not necessarily carry over to the other modes. e.g. a cyclist will not necessarily be able to perform a running program with the same elements of frequency, intensity, and time.
Muscle strength during weight training
is the ability of the muscles to exert force during an activity. Helps the muscles to perform without fatigue.
is the range of motion without a consideration for speed of movement.
is the use of the desired range of motion at a desired velocity
effective for warming up muscles groups and moderately improving flexibility. Avoid sudden jerky movements. Involves slow, steady movements through a range of motion. Example is arm and leg swings.
Very effective in increasing muscle flexibility. Necessary to warm up before these stretches. It involves participants stretching to the farthest point possible and holding for several seconds.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF)
More advanced form of flexibility training that combines traditional stretching with muscle contraction. Effective for rehab, targets specific muscle groups and increase muscular strength Best suited for individuals training at higher levels of fitness. Not suitable for kids or persons whose bones are still growing.
Partner Resistance Stretching
A partner applies resistance to a specific body part to stretch te targeted muscle actively More advanced technique that is a key component of PNF. For more advanced athletes.
Muscle Strength Tests
Dynamometers, cable tensiometer, the 1-RM Test, bench- squat, sit-ups, and lateral pull-down
Muscle Endurance Tests
squat-thrust, pull-ups, sit-ups, lateral pull-down, bench- press, arm curl, push-ups, and dips.
Sit and reach, Kraus-Webber Floor touch Test, trunk extension, forward bend of trunk, Leighton Flexometer, shoulder rotation/ flexion, and goniometer.
The best form of exercises in order to increase muscular development and strength.
Body support activities and calesthenics
are good exercises for young students or beginners of all ages. Such exercises use multiple muscle groups and have minimal risk of injury.
To improve muscular strength and endurance a student can:
-Train with free weights
-Perform exercises that use an individual's body weight for resistance
-Do strength training exercises two times per week that incorporate all major muscle groups.
The components of flexibility are
Muscles, joints, tendons, and ligaments.
Muscle is the body's contractile tissue. Its function is to produce force and cause motion.
Slow Twitch Muscles
Carry more oxygen and sustains aerobic activity.
Fast Twitch Muscles
Carry less oxygen and powers anaerobic activity.
Instructors should convey information with illustrations, diagrams, and demonstrations.
Instructors should convey information with clear sequential descriptions of tasks.
Instructors should convey information using tools and aides that the students can touch and feel and instructors should assist the students in trying out the tasks that they will perform, so they can get a feel for them.
Children whose abilities with this intelligence will best process information presented to them verbally- descriptions should be rich and detailed.
Children whose abilities center on this intelligence best process information presented as procedures and sequences. Instructors should present information in compartmentalized tasks, with emphasis places on cause and effect relationships.
Children whose abilities center on this intelligence best process information presented visually with illustration, diagrams, and demonstrations.
Children whose abilities center on this intelligence will tend to focus ion the social aspect of educational activities. In order to capture and maintain their interest and attention, activities should involve group work and teamwork.
Children whose abilities center on this intelligence will tend to be more introspective, assigning value to learned material by relating the material to their own personal experiences. In order to communicate information to such children effectively, the instructor should "personalize" the subject matter and give examples to help children connect with ways that the material is relevant to their own lives.
Children whose abilities center on this intelligence will be better at grasping information related to physical activities and body movements. (use tools and aids that the students can touch and feel). To communicate with such children, the instructor should give students the opportunity to experience what they are learning physically.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
TExES Physical Education EC-12 158
Texes Physical Education EC-12 158
Physical Education EC 12-158
Texas Physical Education EC-12 158
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
CSET Physical Education Subtest 1
P.E. Academic Vocabulary
Physical Education Certification
Core Fitness Unit
OTHER SETS BY THIS CREATOR
7th Grade Math Cat 1 Terms
Biology MIdterm Review Concepts
Biology Chapter 1 (Prentice Hall 2008)
Student List Orange >10
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
PSYCH Exam 2
Astronomy Homework Questions
Microbiology, Exam I (Study Guide (Ch. 1/1,4,5,6)
CHAPTER 6 and 7 QUIZ