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Psychodynamic Perspective

theoretical orientation that emphasizes unconscious determinants of behavior

What does the psychodynamic perspective emphasize?

Emphasizes the unconscious - the underneath

Freud's Structural Theory

Consists of the Id, Ego and Superego


acts according to the pleasure principle. It is hedonistic- it wants what it wants when it wants it. This is were sexual and aggressive instincts are.


Conscious awareness- acts according to the reality principle. This means that it is more rational and it takes into consider the reality of the world. It can see what the different constraints are.


Conscience- your morals and values. This keeps the ego in check from wanting to pursue the ids desires - very black and white, good and evil

Defense Mechanisms (Freud)

used to keep "unacceptable" thoughts, feelings or desires out of conscious awareness

what are defense mechanisms used for?

to protect ourselves, but when we use them too much it becomes problematic


refusing to accept something or acknowledge


putting information into the unconscious

Freudian slip

you say one thing and you mean another. Freud thinks that its is based one what is preoccupied in the unconscious

reaction formation

transforming an "unacceptable" desire into its opposite

example of reaction formation?

homosexuals becoming a priest


attributing undesirable feelings to someone else


creating a self-serving explanation


reverting to childish behavior


turning a negative drive into something positive

psychosexual development (Freud)

the idea that you can become fixated at any stage which will cause problems in your life

What are the five psychosexual stages of development?

Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency and Genital

Oral stage

(0-18 months) main source of stimulation is by the mouth. If one became fixated at this stage (oral fixation-wanting oral sources of gratification) the person wants to have something in their mouth at all time such as candy, cigarettes, pencil. Etc

Anal stage

(18 months - 3 years) main source of stimulation is the anus. Fixation leads to "anal retentive" these people are over controlled. The opposite is Anal Expulsive which is a person who is sloppy, impulsive, and uncontrolled.

Phallic Stage

(3-5 years) - main source of gratification is the genitals. Oedipus complex - the whole idea that boys will have a sexual attraction to their mother and want to kill their father. For girls it is Electra Complex where the girl is in love with the father and want to harm the father. **** they realize that they cannot do this so they act just like dad so you can get a women like mom. Or you can act just like mom so you can get a man like dad. It is identification with the same-sex parent. A lack of a resolution will lead to Neurotic

Latency Stage

(5-12 years) - playing out the roles from the previous stage

Genital Stage

(12 years) - this is when puberty starts. Any fixation at an earlier stage will impact or mess up this stage and lead to unhealthy sexuality or relationships.

Carl Jung

Archetypes - believe to in the collective unconscious which is common to all humankind. They a images . Examples are good, evil, hero, rebirth, self, mask. They allow us to understand these. Believed people respond to events based on archetypes Goal of healthy personality development is integration of the unconscious with conscious thought (disorders are an imbalance of the two)

Alfred Adler and Karen Horney

Emphasized the ego and self-concept. Believed people are motivated to keep a positive view of themselves. Emphasized society /social and interpersonal issues in personality development.

Erik Erikson

Lifespan theory of psychosocial development. Each stage is associated with a crisis (critical period). Healthy individuals successfully resolve crises.

Object Relations Theorists

People will relate to others how they related to someone earlier in life. Believe interpersonal relationships are at core of development. Unconscious mind contains images of parents and relationships to parents.

Free association

can say whatever you want without worrying about it. Say a word and the patient has to say the first word that comes to mind

dream analysis

a patient would tell about their dreams and the therapist would analyze them


when the patient thinks of someone or relates to them as another person in their life

counter transference

when the clinician does this

working through

you bring these feelings from the unconscious and you work through them


holding back information, start canceling or not showing up, changing the subject. When you hit resistance that means you have hit an inner conflict that needs to be addressed

Humanistic Perspective

Based on belief that human motivation is based on a tendency to strive for self-fulfillment.Strong belief that people are basically good were Freud felt that people were basically bad. People are driven to understand themselves and to understand the world.

Person-Centered Theory (Carl Rogers)

Focuses on the uniqueness of the individual. Used term client-centered to emphasize inherent goodness of people. Strive for congruences between the ideal self and the real self. Believed psychological disorders are result of overly demanding and critical parents. If you didn't have acceptance and love when younger, you want/expect it later in life.

Real self

who you really are on a day to day basis

Ideal self

who you want to be or who you think you have the potential to be

Why do we want the real self and ideal self to be congruent?

so that who we want to be is who we really are

Self-Actualization Theory (Abraham Maslow)

Believed people strive for self-actualization. Considered motivation of the individual. (Hierarchy of Needs)

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs

in order for people to achieve self-actualization, they must meet other needs, called deficit needs (implying that individual is seeking to obtain something that is lacking) People strive for it but many don't get there. In order to reach the top you have to meet the needs before that.

What are the five levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs?

Physiological needs, safety and security, love and belonging, self-esteem and then self-actualization.

treatment within the humanistic perspective

work toward helping the person create a real self that is more similar to the ideal self. Allow client to recognize their inherent goodness.

Unconditional positive regard

you don;t judge someone and you view the person as positive and you withhold any negative judgment


putting yourself in their shoes. I feel sorry WITH you not FOR you


not being fake, being honest and truthful

Motivational interviewing

influenced by humanistic approach. Emphasizes empathy, resolving ambivalence, rolling with resistance (non-confrontational approach)

Sociocultural perspective

Emphasizes influences of people and other social forces on individuals. Attention given to the role of social discrimination in the person's life which means to what extent is the people accepted in a group or culture. Attention is given to social and historical context of the individual.

Family perspective

sees pathology as being caused by patterns in familial relationships that are now maladaptive. Four approaches - Intergenerational, structural, strategic, and experiential.

Family Therapy

it is a systems perspective. family is encouraged to find new ways of relating to each other. Work on changing communication patterns. Generally focus on the family as the client, not an individual. See family relationships as more healing than clinician-client relationships.

Group therapy

can help to reduce feelings of isolation. Give the client opportunity to learn from peers. Can practice learned skills on peers

Milieu Therapy

treatment occurring in the environment. Create communities of clients and staff. Community works together to make decisions

Behavioral Perspective

emphasizes learned behavior

Cognitive behavioral perspective

focuses on the impact of thought processes on behavior

Classical Conditioning

behavioral perspective, include Pavlov's dogs, based on associations. Bell--> Food --> Salivate

based on associations

behaviors are associated with stimuli

conditioned stimulus (CS)

the bell because it's neutral

Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)

food because there is no condiment required to make dogs salivate

Conditioned Response (CR)

salivating in response to the bell

Unconditioned Response (UCR)

salivating in response to food

Stimulus Generalization

they will salivate to any bell

Stimulus Discrimination

they learn to salivated to one specific bell and not just nay bell

taste aversion

one trial learning

Aversive Conditioning

behavioral perspective. Form of classical conditioning in which a painful stimulus is paired with another stimulus.

Operant Conditioning

based on consequences and reinforcement


anything that increases the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future

Primary enforcements

intrinsically rewarding (e.g. food)

secondary reinforcements

rewarding because of their association with primary reinforcements (e.g. money)

Positive reinforcement

behavior is reinforcement by the addition of a positive/pleasurable stimulus (candy)

Negative Reinforcement

behavior is reinforced by the removal of a negative/unpleasant stimulus (noise)


anything that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future

Positive punishment

reducing behavior through the addition of a negative stimuli

negative punishment

reducing behavior through the removal of a positive stimuli


when a behavior stops because of the lack of reinforcement


reinforcing closer and closer approximations of the behavior that you want -- babies we reinforce closer and closer to walking

Social learning

emphasizes learning behavior through observation. Modeling-- acquisition of a behavior through imitation

social cognition

emphasizes impact of social environment on perceptions, judgments and thoughts

Vicarious Reinforcement

occurs when you watch someone else be reinforced for a behavior, because you identify with the person, it is as if you were being reinforced

Cognitively Based Theory

automatic thoughts and Dysfunctional thoughts/attitudes

Albert Ellis

A --> B --> C model (event, thought or belief and emotion because it's the consequence)


if you learn something through association you can unlearn it through association

Cognitive restructuring

working on changing your thoughts

acceptance and commitment therapy

work toward client accepting the full range of thoughts and emotion, while also committing to behavior change that will improve life


transmits information between body and brain


space between neurons into which neurotransmitter is released

Biological perspective

disturbances in behavior are caused by abnormalities in the body, focus is on the nervous system


brain surgery-- usually disconnecting the frontal lobe from the rest of the brain

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

Electric shock - electrodes placed on head and the idea is that it changes brain chemistry

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

Electromagnet placed on scalp and passes a current through cortex and the goal is to increase or decrease excitability of neurons

Deep Brain stimulation

Neurosurgeon places an electrode in brain that delivers a constant low electrical stimulation to small region of the raid


Selective serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors

Technical Eclecticism

Match the intervention to the specific client and problem

Theoretical Integration

using different theoretical models in formulation on a regular basis

Common Factors Approach

Using the components of various therapies that have been shown to be effective


body's alarm response to dangerous or life threatening situations (fight or flight)


apprehension and tension about something in the future, has cognitive and emotional components

Panic Attack

difficulty breathing, sweating, feels like a heart attack, think you are going to die which makes the physical worse. They feel dizzy, like they are choking, heart palpitations, numbness, hot flashes or chill, feel like they are losing control. Person feels overwhelmed and afraid by many physical sensations. Have sudden onset and generally reach a peak within 10 minutes

Unexpected (uncued) panic attack

don't seem to have any trigger

Situationally bound (cued) panic attack

they know what is triggering their panic attack

Panic Disorder

is diagnosed when panic attacks or recurrent or fear of another panic attack has persisted for a month after the first attack. Course of panic disorder- variable. More typical for the disorder the interfere with functioning for many years.Usually develops in people around 20 but another group in mid 30s


avoids situations with a lot of distress. They don't like leaving home. Intense anxiety about being trapped or embarrassed in a situation if a panic attack happening. Situations are avoided or endured with marked distress or anxiety or a "safe person" (more in women than in men)


biological relatives of people with panic disorder are 8 times more likely to develop panic disorder

Anxiety Sensitivity Theory

people with panic are likely to have a hypersensitive "suffocation" mechanism, making them more likely to experience sensations of suffocating or choking


bind to receptor sites of GABA neurons, leading to inhibition of brain activity (ex: Valium, Ativan, Xanaz, Klonopin) very habit forming

Conditioned Fear Reaction

individual associates certain bodily sensations with panic attack

Barlow's Cycle

person experiences highly negative feelings (like physical sxs of panic), causing the person to feel that what is happening in unpredictable and uncontrollable, person focuses on thoughts of helplessness, leading to more panic

Relaxation Training

behavioral ex like deep breathing is really important

Graduated Exposure

the idea that you can expose people to anxiety provoking situations gradually.

Systematic desensitization

heiarchy of anxiety provoking situations where you start with the least provoking and gradually make your way to the most provoking. This has to be paired with good relaxation training.

In vivo



have the person close their eyes and imagine the situation.

Panic Control Therapy (Barlow)

cognitive restructuring, identifying bodily cues of panic, breathing training

Specific Phobia

irrational fear of a particular object or situation that causes an immediate anxiety response and causes significant disruption in functioning (results in avoidance behavior)

What are the four main types of phobias?

Animals, Natural Environment, Situation and Blood injection/injury

Flooding (in vivo and imaginal)

throwing someone into the situation. Can be invivo or imaginable

Graduated Exposure

spider across the room and move it closer and closer until she can hold it in her hand

Thought Stopping

stopping yourself from thinking something. You usually have to do thought replacement with it. I am not going to think about that I am going to think about this.

Social Phobia

Irrational and intense fear that behavior in a public or social situation will be judged and/or criticized

Generally associated with extensive rumination

significant time spent thinking about how they could have behaved differently in a situation, wondering if the offended someone, etc.

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Characterized by pervasive anxiety that is not associated with a specific object or situation. Peron feels that they cannot control their worry

Cognitive restructuring

identify anxious thoughts, develop rational alternatives, change behavior to test alternative (behave as if you believe the alternative thought)


persistent and intrusive thought or image. Common obsessions for individuals with OCD are about contamination, doubt, or aggression


repetitive behaviors, often done in a ritualistic manner. Common compulsions relate to washing or cleaning, counting, checking, hoarding

Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Both occur after the experience of a traumatic event. Acute Distress Disorder occurs soon after the experience of the trauma and remains for a relatively brief period of time. PTSD occurs when symptoms persist for more than one month

Somatoform Disorders

Disorders in which psychological distress is translated into physical problems or complaints

Conversion Disorder

Individual has one or more symptoms of that affect voluntary motor or sensory functioning (movements or 1 of 5 senses)

Somatization Disorder

Physical complaints are experienced for several years and the onset is before age 30

Pain Disorder

Pain in one or more places that is significant enough to warrant clinical attention. Pain causes significant stress or impairment.

Body Dysmorphic Disorder

Preoccupation with an imagined defect in appearance (even if there is a slight abnormality, their concern is excessive). Usually accounted for another disorder (anorexia)


Preoccupied with fears of having or the idea that they do have a serious disease (misinterpret physical symptoms). Preoccupation persists despite appropriate medical evaluation or reassurance. Preoccupation is not delusional nor related to excessive concern about appearance.

Factitious Disorder

no external incentive. Just to take sick role

Munchausen's Syndrome

not a DSM diagnoses because it is factitious

Factitious Disorder (Munchausen's Syndrome) by proxy

Person induces physical symptoms in another person who is in their care

Dissociative Identity Disorder

Experience of two or more distinct identities or personality states, each with an enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about the environment and self.DID often attributed to the experience of childhood abuse


core personality- passive-dependent


personality other than self

Sociocognitive model

clients take on roles that they feel are expected in the situation- attention from others and unintentional prompting from the therapist can contribute to DID

Dissociative Amnesia

One or more episodes in which person is unable to recall important personal information, usually of a traumatic or stressful nature (beyond ordinary forgetfulness)

Localized Amnesia

when the person forgets all events in a specified period of time

Selective Amnesia

can't recall some but can recall others in a specified period of time

Generalized Amnesia

cannot remember anything at all from their life

Continuous Amnesia

when a person can't recall events from a particular time up until the present time

Dissociative Fugue

Person travels suddenly and unexpectedly away from home or job and are unable to recall their past. Person is confused about personal identity, or they assume a partial or complete new identity

Depersonalizaton Disorder

Persistent or recurrent experiences of feeling detached from own body or mental processes (feel as if they are an observing the self from outside of the self)

Sexual behavior is "abnormal" if it..?

1. causes harm to other people
2. causes distress or impairment in functioning


Disorders in which person has recurrent and intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving


sexual relations with adolescents


attraction is for male adolescents

Administering female hormones

decrease sex drive

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