What are some defining properties of gases?
- Expand to fill their container
- Indefinite shape and indefinite volume
- Kinetic energy of particles is stronger than the forces of attractions
- Particles move quickly
- Boiling results in this state of matter
What are some defining properties of liquids?
- Indefinite shape and definite volume
- Kinetic energy and forces of attractions between particles is about even
- Particles can flow
- Melting or condensing results in this state of matter
What are some defining properties of solids?
- Definite shape and volume
- Kinetic energy is less than the forces of attractions between particles
- Particles can only vibrate
- Freezing results in this state of matter
Which state(s) of matter are present when boiling?
Liquid and gas
Which state(s) of matter are present when freezing?
Solid and liquid
What state(s) of matter are present at A?
What is the boiling point of this substance?
100 degrees C
At 60 degrees C, what is the physical state of this substance?
At melting and boiling, temperatures stay the same (flat line on the graph). Why?
Energy is being used to break apart the forces of attractions.
What phase change is happening from E to D?
What are the 2 endothermic phase changes?
melting & boiling
Why did it take a few minutes for everyone to smell the vanilla during the vanilla lab?
Vanilla particles are changing directions as they collide with the air particles
What is diffusion?
The movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration.
What is thermal expansion?
the spreading out of particles as they are heated
Why do some materials expand more than other types of matter as temperature changes?
Different types of materials have different forces of attractions.
Particles move ______ in colder temperatures
What happens to pressure as temperature decreases?
What happens to pressure as volume decreases?
Why does pressure increase as more particles are added to a container?
With more particles, there are more collisions. More collisions = more pressure
What does exothermic mean?
it releases heat