What is the role of trade in the spread of culture in the Aegean islands and beyond?
The different islands traded different kinds of metals, allowing different types of weapons and art to be made, defining the Bronze Age. Also, due to trade, the different cultures influenced each other
What are the major differences between the Minoan and Mycenaean cultures?
-Minoan: lived under king, focused on art/decorating, worshipped female gods; "The Snake Goddess"; built peaceful and lived in unprotected cities, lived in lowlands, valleys, etc.
-Mycenaean: feudal system, rich kings, built buildings of stone; design of relieving triangle, war-like, fortified their cities, lived on fortified hilltops
How did the later Greeks relate to the early Aegean cultures?
Greeks saw themselves continuing the Mycenaean culture; the Aegean cultures also influenced Greek art by beginning with iron art and then moving towards bronze & then having marble with bronze accents;
How do the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey, differ from each other in their depiction of Greek culture and values?
-Iliad: anger of Greeks during war with Troy (tragedy); role of fate in life; reality of war; dissoi logoi
-Odyssey: adventure-laden journey home to wife (romance); focuses on women's fidelity; love and familial affection; the gods power in influencing human actions; the law of xenia, arete;
What is a polis? How is it central to Greek culture and history?
(polis=city-state) A polis was a cultural and political center, which surrounding smaller cities looked to for identity and protection. The "cell" of classical civilization, a town or city with surrounding countryside
What role did the sanctuaries play in the development of Greek culture?
The sanctuaries brought the Greeks together as a people. It created a sense of unity; it was an opportunity to come together and honor their gods and celebrate their accomplishments in the presence of their rivals
Examples of sanctuaries:
● Delos and Delphi: Greeks believed the Earth was attached to heaven here; Apollo spoke through her
● Temples of Hera
How would you describe the evolution of the kouros in 6th century BCE?
The kouros became more realistic as they evolved. Their postures became less stiff and they featured the "archaic smile".
How do the histories of Herodotus contribute to the growing sense of Greek national identity?
He compares their culture to that of the Egyptians, showing the differences in the ways both places do things. He makes them proud to be what they are, Greeks. The histories explore the idea of being a Greek and therefore contribute to the Greeks' identity. p. 178
How would you summarize the contributions of Pericles to the Greeks' sense of themselves? p.192
- "All true Athenians seek excellence through the conscientious pursuit of the public good"
-Athenians are "lovers of the beautiful" who seek to "cultivate the mind"
-He calls Athens the school of the Hellas, meaning it teaches all of Greece by example
- "The quality of Athenian life depends on the link between individual freedom and civic responsibility"
-The greatness of the state is a function of the greatness of its individuals.
How would you define the Idea of Beauty (a Platonic notion) as reflected in Greek sculpture and also as in Greek architecture as exemplified by the Parthenon?
Their idea of beauty related to the natural world. Beauty embodied good physical qualities as well as mental superiorities. This is shown in sculpture like Kritios Boy.
In what ways does the philosophy of Socrates differ from that of the Sophists?
Socrates didn't demand payment for his teaching. Sophists thought that the idea of good and bad was subjective, while Socrates felt that through inductive reasoning, it was possible to understand a general ideal that everyone should strive for. Sophists challenged the democracy and Socrates eventually became its biggest supporter by subjecting himself to drinking the hemlock. He put faith in the court system that what they decided was what would happen. He didn't fight the system and accepted the court's decision thereby giving it legitimacy. Sophists questioned how we know what we know and how can we trust what we know. Socrates just accepted that what we know just is. It was argued that he was the wisest man of all because he actually knew that he knew nothing.
How does Sophocles' play Antigone (Oedipus's daughter) mirror the conflict between the Athenian self and that self's responsibility to the state?
Greeks valued pietas, which is loyalty to the gods, family, and country. In Antigone, two of the values counter-act the other. Antigone wants to be loyal to her family and is unwilling to compromise, while Creon is in love with his power and expects people to respect his authority. Another problem is their gender difference. In Greek culture, women submitted to men regardless of what they were asking, which Antigone refuses to do in the play. Sometimes Athenians were asked to do things for the country that went against their family, and this created a conflict of interest.
How does Hellenistic sculpture differ from Classical and Late Classical sculpture?
Hellenistic has more intense realism. It starts showing emotion in the figures' facial features and position. It has a lot of attention to detail; Hellenistic features include veins on the arms and muscles.
In what ways does a Roman temple, such as the Temple of Fortuna Virilis, differ from a Greek temple, such as the Parthenon?
Fortuna Virilis--main temple dedicated to the god Portunus in the city. Built in the Ionic Order (scroll).
Parthenon- Built in the Doric order (plain).
Describe pietas and explain how it is reflected in Roman portrait sculpture.
Pietas is devotion first to the gods, then country, then family. The Roman busts exemplify the men that lived their lives in pietas. Their wrinkles and hardened faces show us their wisdom and the duty (pietas) they lived. Also, they were small and portable which allowed them to have an influence in much of the Roman Empire.
Why did the Roman emperors build so many public works? What did they symbolize or represent?
The Roman emperors built many public monuments and works as a form of propaganda to encourage pietas. Augustus was very concerned about the restoration of family values and did so through building and sculpting