Intro to Human Resource Management Exel Study Guide
Terms in this set (158)
(1)* Eight HR Functions
4. Performance appraisal
5. Training and development
6. Improving the workplace
7. Relationship building
(1) What role does the planning function of human resource management play within organizations?
strategic planning and short- and medium-range planning
-increasing market share, revenue growth, product or service diversity, profit margins, and planning for financial obligations, etc example help organization better understand how many and what type of employees will be needed in the future also how the organization with obtain and train human capital
(1) What role does the staffing function of human resource management play within organizations?
recruiting job applicants (candidates) and
-application forms, interviewing candidates, reviewing education and formal training verifications, and administering various formal and informal tests to determine fit and potential with the organization.
(1) What are the types of employee compensation?
direct and indirect compensation
-basis of the value of the job, their personal contributions, and their performance
(1) What is the role of performance appraisals?
measuring and monitoring an employee's contribution
(1) How does HRM enhance human potential?
-many firms use training and development activities to remain competitive
-millennials entering the workforce today are more concerned with the ability to grow and develop personally
(1) HRM's work on improving the workplace environment focuses what two environments?
primary health and safety focus was on the physical work environment, there is now a growing concern about the psychological work environment.
(1) What must management be aware of in order to maintain effective work relationships?
(1) What impact has globalization had on HR practices?
-HR managers learn from the HR practices, policies, and activities of other countries
-It is essential that organizations develop and implement HRM policies with international applicability, also making them relevant to employees from diverse cultures and backgrounds.
(1) What are the four implicit HR objectives?
1. Improve productivity
2.Improve quality of work
3. Ensure legal compliance
4. Ensure ethical behavior
(1) How can HR managers make a significant contribution toward productivity improvements?
-a significant contribution toward productivity improvements are work organization and design
-because of the need for creative and productive employees, traditionally structured work—in which employee tasks and responsibilities are described in detail—can block creativity and restrict employees' ability to contribute and add value.
(1) How do organizations improve the quality of work life? How have employees' attitudes regarding involvement with their work shifted?
- by providing opportunities for employees to realize these aspirations, employees will be more content, and as a result
Present day Attitudes
-employees today prefer a greater level of involvement with their work.
-For example, most employees today desire more autonomy and a chance to make a greater contribution to the organization.
(1) Why is it important that HR mangers and personnel be familiar with the laws and regulations?
Because these laws impact nearly all functions and activities with which HRM is involved, HR managers and personnel must be familiar with the laws and regulations that affect
-hiring and pay decisions, promotion activities, health and safety considerations, and labor relations. Legislation at the national and state levels continues to emphasize the rights of employees.
(1) How can HR professionals create a culture where ethical behavior is encouraged?
1. Creating a positive work environment
2. Hiring ethical individuals
3. Providing ethical training
4. Labeling and modeling ethical behavior
5. Creating a well-defined code of ethics
6. Establishing an open-door policy
7. Providing an employee assistance program (EAP)
(1)* Why are ethics important in Human Resource Administration?
HR professionals play a central role in creating and sustaining a positive work environment; it is important that they consistently engage in ethical behavior (role model)
(1) What are the six major trends have been identified as influencing the work environment?
1. Increased competition
2. The costs and benefits associated with HR utilization
3. Productivity changes (resulting from changes in technology, capital investment, the 2008-2014 recession, capital utilization, outsourcing, and government policies)
4. The increasing pace and complexity of social, cultural, legal, demographic, and educational changes
5. The symptoms of dysfunction in the workplace
6. Societal trends of the 21st century
(1)* Is influenced by what four internal environment factors?
1. Culture; shaped by top management values
2. Technology; refers to the firm's equipment and knowledge
3. Organizational structure
4. Organizational size
(1) Internal Environment: Identify who shapes an organization's culture.
-reflected in the company's HR policies and practices
-HR activities normally reflect and articulate corporate culture
(1) Internal Environment: How does technology influence an organization's structure?
Technology use has increased, organizational structures have become flatter and flatter. A "flat" structure is one that has fewer managers or a smaller management hierarchy
(1) Internal Environment: Organizational size is an important factor in determining ________________.
larger the organization the more developed its internal labor market is
(1) Internal Environment: How does the economy influence HR activities?
-tends to decrease unemployment, increase wages, make recruitment more competitive, and increase the desirability of training.
-tends to increase unemployment, diminish wage demands, make recruitment less competitive, and reduce the need for training and development of current employees.
(1) Internal Environment: How does international competition influence HR activities?
Because corporations were forced to become more competitive, HR policies and practices within many firms changed significantly.
(1) What is the purpose of a SWOT analysis?
-commonly used to establish a level of understanding needed for a successful plan
(1)* What are the six competencies of a solid HR Professional?
1. Provide transformational leadership
2. Collaborate and resolve strategic challenges within the firm
3. Encourage real employee involvement
4. Empower and facilitate learning as well as change and decision-making
5. Design process and performance systems
6. Maintain a global business perspective
(1)* What are the eight characteristics of a strong HR Professional?
1. Knowledge of the business and industry (business acumen)
2. Greater understanding of economic phenomena
3. Analytical abilities
4. Leadership and influence
5. Propensity for action
7. Political Awareness
8. Customer focus
(1) HR Characteristics: What knowledge of the Business and Industry must an HR professional possess?
-acquiring HR knowledge and skills but are deficient in general business training, their credibility and contributions are limited
-understanding of the firm's business objectives and the means that must be employed to attain them
-solid training in strategic planning; in-depth understanding of financial statements; familiarity with sales, marketing, and production techniques; and knowledge of how to use modern tools such as data processing and management information systems.
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is important for an HR professional to have an understanding of the economy?
-globalization of markets, internationalization of corporations, and ever-growing insistence on quality require HR professionals to be more familiar
-increasingly asked to advise their firms on productivity and other issues
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is important for an HR professional to have analytical abilities?
increasingly being asked to manage processes rather than activities
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is the ability to influence others a critical characteristic of an HR professional?
the power to convince and influence and the ability to be accepted by different groups—especially top management—will become the determining factor in human resource management success.
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is a propensity for action needed by an HR professional?
HR managers can no longer afford to remain secluded in their own territory; rather, they must engage with everyone within the organization.
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is meant by "engagement?"
organizational survival is becoming more and more contingent on adaptation, the HR manager needs to be intimately involved in the structural changes of the organization
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is it important for HR professionals to have political awareness?
Changing organizational cultures requires great political skill.
(1) HR Characteristics: Why is it important for HR professionals to be customer focused?
. expected to become more business-oriented, they are still expected to be the guardians of employee rights and to retain the spirit of service by which they are known.
(1)* HR Department Roles
1. HR managers should be at the top of the hierarchy.
2. Ensures fair and consistent policy implementation.
3. Stays abreast of change.
4. Becomes and agent for change.
5. Empowers line managers
(1) Why is it important that the HR managers be at the top of the hierarchy?
Being at the top of the organization allows the HR manager to play a critical role in HR policy formulation and provides the power necessary for fair and consistent implementation of HR policies
(1) What is the expectation of the HR department regarding change?
become agents for change and have the necessary skills to facilitate organizational change and maintain organizational flexibility and adaptability.
(1) How does the HR department help line mangers?
by providing information about and interpreting equity legislation and court decisions as well as health and safety standards.
(1)* What Are the Five Functional Areas of HR That a Generalist Should Know?
1. Training and development
2. Compensation and benefits
3. Employee and Labor relations
4. Recruiting and selecting employees
5. Health safety and security
(1)* What are the six major trends that represent the major events that influence the growth and importance of HRM?
1. Increased competition
2. The costs and benefits associated with HR utilization
3. Productivity changes
4. The increasing pace and complexity of social, cultural, legal, demographic, and educational changes
5. The symptoms of dysfunction in the workplace
6. Societal trends of the 21st century
(1)* What is the difference between an HR Generalist and an HR Specialist?
-usually provides guidance, support, management, and serves as a source of help and information on human resource matters.
-responsible for specific human resource management functions within the organization
(1)* Why would a company conduct a SWOT Analysis?
Allows leadership to assess the firm's internal abilities and vulnerabilities to the external environment
(2) What are the consequences to employees of "employment at-will?"
may leave them vulnerable and financially insecure
(2) What are the three exceptions to "employment at-will?"
1. Public-policy exception
2. Implied-contract exception
3. Implied covenant-of-good-faith exception
(2) List one example of the Public-Policy exception.
employee who refuses to break the law, exercises a legal right, fulfills a statutory duty, or engages in whistle-blowing activities
(2) What are the various ways implied contracts are created?
2. Actions of employer
(2) List one example of the implied contract exception.
gives oral assurances that the employee will have continued work for satisfactory job performance
(2) What are the benefits of a diverse workforce?
Creativity and innovation.
(2) What is the result of diversity management within organizations?
will help each individual within the organization feel included. Inclusion describes the extent to which each person in the organization feels welcomed, respected, supported, and valued as a team member.
(2)* What Is the Difference Between Diversity and Inclusion?
Diversity is the differences between people (personality, education, race, build, etc.); inclusion is respect and valuing people in order to achieve a common goal
(2) What groups are protected under Title VII?
Race, Color, Religion, Sex, or National origin
(2) How was the EEOC created?
By the Civil Rights Act of 1964
(2)* What Is the EEOC Responsible for Enforcing?
Federal anti-discrimination statutes
(2) What is the purpose of the EEOC?
enforces federal anti-discrimination statutes and provides oversight for all federal equal opportunity employment regulations.
(2) List one example of the religious discrimination.
-since the firm did not hire Hassan specifically because of his Muslim beliefs.
(2) How does the EEOC define "race"?
local geographic or global human population—a distinct group—that is evident by genetically transmitted characteristics
(2) How does the EEOC define "color"?
-commonly understood to mean pigmentation, complexion, or skin shade or tone
(2)* What are the three basic elements of an affirmative action plan?
1. reasonable self-analysis
2. reasonable rational for taking affirmative action
3. reasonable affirmative action
(2) What was the purpose of affirmative action?
The focus of AA is to assist historically disadvantaged groups in employment. Such groups include women, African Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, disabled persons, American Indian/Alaska Native, and veterans.
(2) What protected categories are covered under affirmative action?
historically disadvantaged groups in employment. Such groups include women, African Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, disabled persons, American Indian/Alaska Native, and veterans.
(2) Who must have an affirmative action plan?
government contractor's formal plan for establishing employment placement goals and time tables for hiring more women and minorities.
(2)* What Is a Main Consequence to Employees of the "Employment At-will"?
Employees now have less financial security
(2)* What Protected Categories Are Covered Under Affirmative Action?
Women, African Americans, Asians, Pacific Islanders, American Indian/Alaska Native, disabled persons, and veterans
(3) List the ways that human resource planning (HRP) helps organizations.
To consider the organization's future staffing needs and to help execute the organization's business strategy.
(3) How has technology influenced HRP?
effective human resource planning is easier than ever before.
(3) What are the 4 steps (phases) in the HR planning process? What happens during each step/phase?
Phase 1: Developing Data.
Phase 2: Establishing HR Objectives and Polices.
Phase 3: HR Programming.
Phase 4: HRP Control and Evaluation.
(3) What are the two common forecasting techniques used to project the organization's demand for human resources?
judgmental forecasts and conventional statistical projections
(3) What are the six statistical forecasting methods?
-Multiple Linear Regression
-Time Series Analysis
-Human Resource Ratios
(3) What are the three judgmental forecasting methods that are demand data gathering methods?
Managerial estimate, Delphi technique, nominal grouping technique
(3) List an example of a variable.
variable related to employment, such as sales
(3) When should multiple linear regression be used to forecast demand?
For example, instead of using only sales to predict employment demand, productivity and equipment-use data may also be used. Because it incorporates several variables related to employment, multiple linear regression analysis may produce more accurate demand forecasts than simple linear regression analysis.
(3) When should time series analysis be used to forecast demand?
In a time series analysis, past staffing levels are used to project future HR needs. Past staffing levels are examined in view of isolating season and cyclical variations, long-term trends, and random movements.
(3) What are the two judgmental techniques used by organizations to make supply forecasts?
Succession Planning and Replacement Planning
(3) What information is included in replacement planning?
charts that show the names of the current occupants of positions in the organization and the names of likely replacements. Replacement charts make potential vacancies readily apparent, based on the present performance levels of employees currently in jobs
(3) What is the difference between succession planning and replacement planning?
succession planning tends to be longer term, more developmental and more flexible.
(3) Why is establishing HR objectives and policies (phase 2) vital?
because it fosters HR strategies that parallel and support the firm's business plans
(3) What are the two types of action programs?
attraction and reduction
(3) What action program is designed to increase the supply of the right employees in the organization?
(3) What should be included in redundancy planning?
outplacement counseling, buy-outs, job skill retraining, and job transfers. Unions, which will be discussed in greater detail later, can also play a central role in redundancy planning
(3) Why is the evaluation of HR plans and programs an important process?
ot only for determining the effectiveness of HRP, but also for demonstrating the significance of both HRP and the HR department's role within the organization.
(3)* What actions are involved in reduction planning to maintain dignity and morale?
Planning should be outplacement counseling, buy-outs, job skill retraining, and job transfers.
(3)* What are the factors that organizations have shifted in order to attract employees?
Increase employee self-control, increase bottom-up communications, emphasize intrinsic rewards, create more broadly defined job roles
(3)* When should linear regression be used vs multiple linear regression?
When you have one variable with which you are forecasting labor demand (need), use linear regression; more than one variable, use multiple.
(3)* Which of the demand data gathering methods are statistical techniques
Linear regression, multiple linear regression, productivity ratios, trend analysis, stochastic analysis
(4) Describe the purpose of recruitment.
To generate a pool of potentially qualified applicants and to help organizations meet their legal and social responsibility
(4) What are the factors that influence a "promotion-within" policy?
- Often, management and others assert that internal employees are more qualified and are better prepared for the responsibilities of the job
-feel more secure and loyal to an organization when it gives them opportunities for advancement. -
-less expensive than outside promotion, both in terms of time and money.
(4) What criterion do organizations think should be used for transfers?
Unions seem to prefer promotion and transfer based on seniority. On the other hand, organizations prefer promotion based on ability and potential.
(4) List three examples of when a job posting might be seen by an employee.
Candidates can be notified by employee referral programs (often word of mouth) and internal job postings
(4) What is the most common source of external recruiting in most industries?
(4) In what type of situations are employment agencies used?
Many employers who seek skilled workers may not have the resources to do their own recruiting, and have only temporary or seasonal demands for skilled labor. Private agencies, therefore, play a major role in recruiting professional and managerial applican
(4) What industries are most likely to use trade associations as a recruitment source?
as these organizations have newsletters and other communication channels in which to advertise job openings. Annual trade meetings can also provide opportunities for employers and potential job applicants to meet.
(4) What are the two major components of job-matching systems
job profiles and candidate profiles
(4) What information is included in a "candidate profile?"
Information regarding the candidate's experience or skills related to specific jobs and may list the candidate's job preferences and interests.
(4)* What is an educational institution?
Technical school, 2 or 4 year college through which candidates may gain internships (paid or unpaid), direct referral, or on-campus interviews from employers
(4)* However, effective recruiting strives to not only match individuals with jobs, but to ensure long-term retention. Organizations can do this by:
1. Devoting attention to the job interview
2.Having a job-matching program
3. Carefully timing recruiting procedures
4. Developing policies regarding job offer acceptances
(5) "Explain the benefits to organizations of new employee orientation and socialization.*Competency: 3037.1.6 (5) Employee Training and Development"
It will help reduce turnover among the new employees.
(5) What are the benefits of developing selection devices (tests) on the basis of a job analysis?
Selection devices developed on the basis of a job analysis are more likely to be job-related, and therefore, more effective and more likely to satisfy legal considerations.
(5) What is the difference between the "ultimate criterion" and the "actual criterion?"
ultimate criterion is a theoretical construct or abstract idea that can never actually be measured
includes the measurable factors that constitute a successful person.
(5) What are the benefits of a reliable selection process?
employees are more likely to succeed in their jobs. In turn, if employees are successful in their jobs, the organization experiences less employee turnover, increased loyalty, and a positive work environment
(5) What are the key benefits of ensuring the validity of selection tests?
ensuring the validity of selection tests is identifying applicants who are the best qualified.
(5) What can result from the poor validity of selection tests?
poor validity can result in legal action if the test is shown to be discriminatory.
(5) "What does research teach us about the effectiveness of orientation and socialization?*Competency: 3037.1.6 Employee Training and Development"
Research has suggested that effective orientation and socialization reduces turnover and helps create a positive work environment. Most individuals do not know about the values, norms, attitudes and behaviors that an organization expects of its members. Orientation, in essence, attempts to provide the individual with the information he or she needs to fit into the organization.
(5)* Two Type of Criteria
Ultimate criterion and Actual criterion
(5)* What is the purpose of an interview
Assists in gathering information about a candidates KSA's through questions (content of the job) and also allows us to assess verbal communication, interpersonal skills, and other areas through the process of the interview itself.
(5)* What is the relationship between recruiting and selection?
The more effective the recruiting, the greater the likelihood that selection will find suitable candidates for hire.
(5)* Why is conducting a job analysis critical to employee selection?
It increases accuracy of job descriptions in recruiting, and it aids in developing job-related selection procedures.
(5)* Why is having a reliable selection process important?
High reliability increases the likelihood of a positive work environment and the overall productivity in the organization; it allows us to "lean on" the test results or process results to make our decisions.
(5)* Why is having a valid selection process important?
High validity ensures that applicants who are potentially the best qualified can be identified, whereas poor validity of a selection process can cause the organization to face legal action.
(6) What are the 5 steps of the ADDIE model?
Assessment, Design, Development, Implementation and Evaluation
(6) Is the ADDIE model a continuous cycle or a linear series of steps?
(6) What are the goals of a needs assessment?
1. To determine whether a training need exists,
2. to identify where in the organization this need exists, and
3. to determine the precise nature of the required training
(6) What information does upper-level mangement provide during a needs analysis?
1. Upper-level managers can appropriately provide input on the vision of the organization
(6) What information does middle-level mangement provide during a needs analysis?
2. Middle-level managers can advise on the nature of specific performance problems
(6) What role do training mangers/instructional designers play during a needs analysis?
3. Training managers and instructional designers need to assess whether potential training programs are aligned with business strategy 4. Subject Matter Experts (SME's)
(6) What information can an SME provide during a needs analysis?
besides providing very useful information about the job itself, being involved in the needs assessment makes it more likely that job incumbents will be motivated to participate in any subsequent training program that might be designed.
(6) What are the three levels of needs assessment associated with the ADDIE model?
Organizational, Task, and Personal
(6) What is the primary purpose of an organizational level needs assessment?
-vision, strategy, goals
-support of mangers and employees for training
(6) What is the primary purpose of a task level needs assessment?
-KSAs necessary to complete the task
-conditions under which task is performed
(6) What is the primary purpose of a person level needs assessment?
-charastic of the person
-feedback and performance review
(6) What information is included in the design blueprint in the design phase?
Goals, objectives, and evaluation tasks that must be developed and sequenced; similar to a blueprint before building a house
-project management plan with milestones and deadlines
-documentation of desired return on investment
(6) What information is learned during "pilot program?"
sequencing of content, assess the effectiveness of chosen learning activities, assess the time allotted, determine if the physical space and layout are appropriate, and test the various assumptions about program design, development, and implementation.
reaction, learning, behavior, results
(6) What two types of data are typlically gathered during the evaluation phase?
Formative and Summative
(6) Why is transfer of training important?
Training servers no purpose if its not used back on the job
(6) What 3 factors are critical for transfer of training to occur?
1. ensuring conditions in the training program are identical to those in the job
2. teaching principles for applying the behaviors learned in the training program to the job situation
3. using the contract plan
(6) Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Criteria are, in order:
reaction, learning, behavior, results
(6) Why would an organization choose to use on-the-job training?
On-the-job training is used by organizations because it provides a "hands-on" learning experience that facilitates learning transfer and because it can fit into the organization's flow of activities
(6) What are the advantages and disadvantages of on-site training?
The advantage of presenting training in a conference room is that it is convenient for employees to leave their work locations and return to them without requiring time for travel. Knowledge that is relatively brief and uncomplicated can be effectively presented in a conference room.
disadvantage is that the trainees are still so close to their work, both physically and psychologically, that they are distracted by work pressures.
(6) What are the advantages of off-site training?
it enables the trainee to acquire skills and knowledge away from the usual job pressures
(6)* Why is the ADDIE Model Benificial to the training process?
The results of evaluation from one training program become part of the assessment of needs for the next program.
(7) What are the two ways orgnaizations use performance appraisal data?
evaluate performance and input for developmental purposes
(7) What role does a job analysis play in performance appraisals? s
foundation of performance appraisal
-If a formal job analysis has not been conducted to establish the validity of the PA form, and thus the job-relatedness of an evaluation criterion, the company may be accused of discrimination
(7) In what circumstances are peer appraisals useful?
-when superiors lack access to some aspects of the subordinate's performance
-self-managed teams, when teamwork and participation are part of the organizational culture
(7) In what circumstances is the validity of peer appraisals reduced?
if the organizational reward system is highly competitive and based on performance, and if there is a low level of trust among subordinates.
(7) What information is learned from appraisal by subordinates?
can make superiors more aware of their impact on subordinates
-learning experience can be improved
(7) What are two advantages of using computer monitoring as a data source for performance appraisal?
fast and also the most objective
(7) What does the staight ranking method involve?
superior lists the subordinates in order from best to worst, usually on the basis of overall performance. Incumbents can also be ranked with regard to their performance on specific duties, such as attendance, record of meeting deadlines, quality of reports, etc.
(7) What does the alternative ranking method involve?
The first step is to put the best subordinate at the head of the list and the worst subordinate at the bottom, usually on the basis of overall performance.
The superior then selects the best and worst from the remaining subordinates.
The middle position on the list is the last to be filled.
Alternative ranking approaches can be used quite efficiently not only by a single supervisor, but by the subordinates themselves.
(7) What does the paired comparison method involve?
An advantage to this approach over is that it overcomes the problem of an "elevation set." That is, it forces the assessor to compare the performance of each incumbent to all other incumbents, one by one.
(7) Regardless of the ranking method used, what is the output?
Who is the best performer in the group? Or, who should be assigned a specific task?
(7) What is required from the supervisor under a forced distribution performance appraisal method?
must assign only a certain proportion of subordinates to each of several categories with respect to each other.
(7) What type of information is included in a narrative essay performance review?
-only qualitative data and not quantitative data
-rater can describe the employee's strengths and weaknesses and suggest methods for improving performance.
(7) Why are conventional rating forms extensively used by organizations?
they are relatively easy to develop and permit quantitative results that allow comparisons across employees and departments
(7) What are three factors that affect the validity and reliability of an organization's performance appraisal process?
Incomplete or inaccurate information, poor communication (lack of clarity) and rating errors
(7) Which of the three types of validity (empirical, content, and construct) is legally defensible if challenged in court?
(7) Describe strategies for improving indivuial and team performance.
-Training and development
-Compensating employees for developing/increasing their knowledge, skills or abilities (for example, obtaining a certification)
-Compensation; letting workers to design their own jobs; goal setting
(7)* What is the relationship between performance appraisal systems and compensation and training and development?
Performance appraisal (part of performance management) drives salary increases as well placement decisions
(7)* What uses of performance appraisal are considered adminstrative actions?
2. Wage and salary decisions
3. Validation of employee selection approaches
4. Evaluation of training effectiveness
(7)* What uses of performance appraisal are considered developmental actions?
1. Feedback for performance improvement
2. Identification of training needs
3. Career planning
(8) Why is being a learning organization beneficial?
1. Acquiring knowledge
2. Increased transfer of knowledge
(9) List the two types of compensation.
direct and indirect copensation
(9) What are three examples of direct compensation? ????
-basic wage or salary
(9) What are three examples of indirect compensation?
-and/or any other indirect form of compensation or benefit
(9) What are three examples of variable pay?
-form of profit sharing
-and/or stock options
(9) What are the two most common forms of fixed pay?
hourly wage and yearly salary
(9)* What is the difference between direct and indirect compensation (benefits)?
Direct compensation is monies given through wages and salaries; the terms "fringe benefits" and "benefits-pay" are used by many corporations to denote indirect compensation
(9)* What is the major difference between fixed variable compensation?
Fixed pay may be seen as the amount known in advance; variable compensation is determined by performance or productivity during the pay period or another period of time that adds to the employee earnings
(9)* What is the role of annual bonuses in an organization compensation philosophy?
To assist an organization in their strategic role to be more competitive
(10) What are three examples of indirect compensation
1. Employee benefits
2. Employee training
3. Employee services
(10)* What is the key factor in distinguishing indired form of compensation?
No cash is provided directly to the employee (no cash in hand)
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